What do you understand by noise pollution, give the different sources of noise pollution?

What do you understand by noise pollution, give the different sources of noise pollution?

Noise pollution is unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which is emitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through nerves. Sounds produced by all vibrating bodies are not audible. The frequency limits of audibility are from 20 Hz to 20,000 HZ.

A noise problem generally consists of three inter-related elements-the source, the receiver and the transmission path. This transmission path is usually the atmosphere through which the sound is propagated, but can include the structural materials of any building containing the receiver.

Noise may be continuous or intermittent. Noise may be of high frequency or of low frequency which is undesired for a normal hearing. For example, the typical cry of a child produces sound, which is mostly unfavorable to normal hearing. Since it is unwanted sound, we call it noise.

The discrimination and differentiation between sound and noise also depends upon the habit and interest of the person/species receiving it, the ambient conditions and impact of the sound generated during that particular duration of time.

There could be instances that, excellently rendered musical concert for example, may be felt as noise and exceptional music as well during the course of the concert! Sounds of frequencies less than 20 HZ are called infrasonics and greater than 20,0000 HZ are called ultrasonics.

noise pollution
                                                               noise pollution

 

Sources of noise pollution

1. Road Traffic
2. Use of loudspeakers
3. Bursting of crackers
4 Industrial activities
5. Railways
6. Aircrafts
7 Radio and Television

 

Discuss the effects of noise pollution on human beings and living organisms.

 

Noise induces a severe impact on humans and on living organisms. Some of the adverse effects are:

1. Annoyance: It creates annoyance to the receptors due to sound level fluctuations. The aperiodic sound due to its irregular occurrences causes displeasure to hearing and causes annoyance.

2. Physiological effects: The physiological features like breathing amplitude, blood pressure, heart-beat rate, pulse rate, blood cholesterol are effected.

3. Loss of hearing: Long exposure to high sound levels cause loss of hearing. 28. This is mostly unnoticed, but has an adverse impact on hearing function.

4. Human performance: The working performance of workers/human will be affected as they will be losing their concentration.

5. Nervous system: It causes pain, ringing in the ears, feeling of tiredness, thereby effecting the functioning of human system.

6. Sleeplessness: It affects the sleeping there by inducing the people to become restless and loose concentration and presence of mind during their activities.

7. Damage to material : The buildings and materials may get damaged by exposure to infrasonic/ultrasonic waves and even get collapsed.

Discuss control of noise pollution at source.

The noise pollution can be controlled at the source of generation itself by employing techniques like-

1. Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors: The domestic noise coming from radio, tape recorders, television sets, mixers, washing machines, cooking, operations can be minimized by their selective and judicious operation. By usage of carpets or any absorbing material, the noise generated from felling of items in house can be minimized.

2. Maintenance of automobiles: Regular servicing and tuning of vehicles will reduce the noise levels, Fixing of silencers to automobiles, two wheelers etc., will reduce the noise levels.

3. Control over vibrations: The vibrations of materials may be controlled using proper foundations, rubber padding etc. to reduce the noise levels caused by vibrations.

4. Low voice speaking: Speaking at low voices enough for communication reduces the excess noise levels.

5. Prohibition on usage of loud speakers: By not permitting the usage of loudspeakers in the habitant zones except for important meetings/functions.

6. Selection of machinery: Optimum selection of machinery tools or equipment reduces excess noise levels. For example selection of chairs, or selection of certain machinery/equipment which generate less noise (Sound) due to its superior technology etc. is also an important factor in noise minimization strategy.

7. Maintenance of machines: Proper lubrication and maintenance of machines, vehicles etc. will reduce noise levels. For example, it is a common experience that many parts of a vehicle will become loose while on a rugged path of journey. If these loose parts are not properly fitted, they will generate noise and cause annoyance to the driver/passenger. Similarly is the case of machines, Proper handling and regular maintenance is essential not only for noise control but also to improve the life of machine.

Discuss control of noise pollution during transmissione.

The noise pollution can be controlled during transmission by employing techniques like-

1. Installation of barriers: Installation of barriers between noise source and receiver can attenuate the noise levels. For a barrier to be effective, its lateral width should extend beyond the line-of-sight at least as much as the height. The barrier may be either close to the source or receiver, to increase the traverse length for the sound wave. It should also be noted that the presence of the barrier itself can reflect sound back towards source. At very large distances, the barrier becomes less effective because of the possibility of refractive atmospheric effects.

2. Design of building: The design of the building incorporating the use of suitable noise absorbing material for wall/door/window/ceiling will reduce the noise levels.

3. Installation of panels or enclosures: A sound source may be enclosed within a paneled structure such as room as a means of reducing the noise levels at the receiver. The actual difference between the sound pressure levels inside and outside an enclosure depends not only on the transmission loss of the enclosure paniels but also on the acoustic absorption within the enclosure and the details of the panel penetrations which may include windows or doors.

4. Green belt development: Green belt development can attenuate the sound levels. The degree of attenuation varies with species of greenbelt. The statutory regulations direct the industry to develop greenbelt four times the built-up area for attenuation of various atmospheric pollutants, including noise.

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