What is building and its meaning? Basic Components of a Building?

Last updated on May 14th, 2024 at 10:35 am

Any structure constructed of whatsoever material and used for residential, business or purposes is called a building. It includes foundation, plinth, wall, floor, roof, other verandah, plumbing and other buildings etc.

it provides a permanent shelter to the inmates. It may be noted that tents, shamianas and tarpaulin shelters are not considered as buildings.

Following are the purposes to be achieved through a building:

a) The primary object of a building is to provide shelter to the inmates.
b) To provide sufficient accommodation for the purpose for which it is constructed.
c) To provide protection to the inmates from the heat and glare of the sun.
d) To protect the inmates from the storm, lightning, rain and snowfall.
e) To provide protection against thieves and house breakers.


Building Definition & Meaning What is Building
                                                            What is building and its meaning?

Following are the provisions that are suggested for a building:

a) All the outer openings of a building such as doors, windows, verandahs, etc. should be provided with sun shades to have protection from sun glare.

b) The outer walls should be made either thick or provided with cavities to protect the inmates from dampness.

c) The roofs should be provided with an artificial ceiling with small air gaps so as to have protection against the heat.

d) The roof covering should be properly and firmly fixed to the roofing structure so as to have protection against the storm.

e) The top of the building should be provided with a copper lightning conductor so as to protect the inmates from lightning.

f) The roof should be leak-proof and a proper arrangement for draining off rain water should be provided so as to protect the inmates from rain water.

g) The roof of a building in hilly area should be provided with sufficient area outward slope, so that the snow may slide down, thus providing protection to the inmates.

h) All the outer windows should be made strong and provided with grills so as to provide protection to the inmates against thieves and house breakers.

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Define the two different parts of a building?

1. Sub-structure: The part of a building below the ground is known as sub-structure or foundation. Sometimes, a part of a major building is constructed below ground level which provides accommodation.

This portion of the building which provides accommodation below the ground level is called basement.

In such a case basement along with other portion of the building is supported by the foundation below it.

The part of the building which acts as a foundation does not provide any accommodation but simply transmits the load of the building safely to the soil lying under-neath.

Since it is usually under the ground it consist of the basement i.e. a place for accommodation under the ground.

2. Super-structure: The part of the building above the ground level is known as super- structure. The super-structure of a building usually consists of walls, floors, verandahs, doors, windows, etc.

1. Walls: The structures constructed to enclose an area, to support suspended floors and roof, or to divide the floor area of a building into required number of rooms are known as walls. These are essential to provide privacy to the inmates and protect them from wind and weather.

2. Roof: The covering constructed over the enclosed space of a building is called roof. It is essential to protect the inmates from weathering agencies such as storm, sun, rains, etc.

3. Floors: The surfaces which provide room for the inmates to live at different levels in a building are called floors. Floors are essential to divide a building into different storeys and to provide a hard surface to live at different levels.

4. Verandah: The covered outer portion adjacent to living rooms, usually open on two or three sides, is called verandah. It is the front side of the building is called front verandah, whereas it is called rear verandah when provided for the back side. Verandahs are important and essential to protect the inmates from heat, glare of the sun and direct showers of the rain.

5. Doors: The arrangements made to provide free access to inside and outside rooms of a building are called doors. Doors are essential to provide access to inside and outside of the rooms of a building.

6. Windows: The arrangement provided to allow for entry of air and light inside the rooms of a building are called windows. Windows are essential to provide fresh air and natural light to the inmates of the building.

What is Building

How are buildings classified? Define any 4 types based on the occupancy?

The buildings types, depending upon the following basis:

1. Based on occupancy
2. Based on the type of construction

Following are the four types based on the occupancy:

1. Educational building: The used for school, college or day-care purposes are called educational buildings.

These buildings provide room for teachers and students and are used for more then 8 hours per week for purposes involving assembly for instructions, education and recreation, etc.

The important examples of educational buildings are: Libraries, nursery or primary schools, high or higher secondary schools etc.

2. Institutional buildings: The buildings used for the purposes such as medical or other treatment purposes are called institutional buildings.

These buildings also include buildings used for the care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, disease, etc. care of infants, aged persons and for penal or correctional detention in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted.

The buildings ordinarily provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants. The important examples of institutional buildings are: hospital, sanitaria etc.

3. Assembly buildings: The buildings where groups of people gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and other similar purposes are called assembly buildings.

The important examples of assembly buildings are: theatres, motion picture houses, assembly halls, auditoría, exhibition halls, museums, gymnasiums, restaurants, surface and marine public transportation services, etc.

4. Hazardous buildings: The buildings used for storage, manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials are called hazardous buildings.

These are used for storage, handling, manufacturing or processing the products such as highly corrosive, toxic alkalies, acids or other liquids or chemicals producing flames for example storage of acetylene, hydrogen, illuminating or natural gases.

The examples for hazardous buildings are: storage of acetylene, hydrogen, illuminating or natural gases, ammonia, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and other gases subject to explosion fume or toxic hazard.

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Define the term building construction? Classify it on the terms of construction and discuss the materials used in construction of a building?

The art of constructing buildings for residential, business and other purposes, systematically according to their planning and design is known as building construction.

Building construction is procured privately or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including hard bid, negotiated price, traditional, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging.

Based on the type of construction, buildings are classified as

a) Buildings with Type 1′ construction in this type the materials used have 4 hour fire resistance.

b) Buildings with ‘Type 2’ construction in this type the materials used have 3 hour fire resistance.

c) Buildings with Type 3′ construction in this type the materials used have 2 hour fire resistance.

d) Buildings with Type 4′ construction in this type the materials used have 1 hour fire resistance.

Materials used in the construction of a building are:

a) Stones
b) Bricks and other clay products such as floor tiles, roofing tiles etc.
c) Cement such as Portland cement, white cement, coloured cement etc.
d) Lime
e) Aggregates in the form of broken bricks, crushed stones, gravel, sand.
f) Timber and timber products such as plywood, hard board, batten board.
9) Metals in the form of rolled steel sections, mild steel, and medium tensile steel bars for concrete reinforcement. High tensile structural steel plain and corrugated galvanised iron sheets, expanded metal etc.
h) Paint varnishes and washes etc.
i) Glass in various forms such as glass wool, flint glass etc.
j) Plastic materials
k) Insulating materials
i) Asbestos cement, corrugated sheets and fittings.
m) Bituminous materials such as – asphalt, tar, etc.
n) Door and window fittings.
o) Earth.
p) Clay.
q) water etc.

What are the various points which you would like to keep in mind while selecting site for following buildings:.

1) a residential house 2)post office 3) hostel 4) recreation building

The various points should mind selecting sites for following building:

1. Residential house: The site for a house bungalow or flat should be situated in a good locality and near to the post and telegraph office, hospital, market, a cheap and good transport facilities should be available when going to and coming back from the office, school, market, bus stand railway station etc. the site should preferably provide an unobstructed sunlight and breeze as to provide physical comfort to the inmates.

2. Post office: The site should be easily accessible to the office bearers and to the concerned people.The site for a post office be easily accessible to the members of business community.

The site for general post office should preferably be in the heart of the city or town and near to the marketing centre.

3. Hostel: The site for hostel should be near the institution or college for which it is meant. It must be in quiet locality so as to provide a calm atmosphere to the boarders to study.

4. Recreation building: The site for a cinema theatre should be easily accessible from localities and approachable by local buses. It may be having sufficient area for providing cinema building, cycle stand, car park etc.

The site for club must be accessible to the whole area to which it is to serve. It should be sufficient in area to accommodate the building of club, restaurant, badminton hall, tennis court, car park etc. as far as possible the site should not be adjoining main traffic road and railways.

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