Last updated on September 7th, 2023 at 10:51 pm
The various functions residential building are:
I. The primary function of the building is to provide shelter the inmates.
II. To provide sufficient accommodation for the purpose for which it is constructed.
III. To provide protection to the inmates from the heat and glare of the sun.
IV. To protect the inmates from the storm, lightning, rain and snowfall.
V. To provide protection against thieves and house breakers. 21011
For this purpose the following provisions are suggested in a building:
i. All the outer openings of a building such as doors, windows, verandahs, etc. should be provided with sun shades to have protection from sun glare.
ii. The outer walls should be made either thick or provided with cavities to protect Inmates from dampness.
iii. The roofs should be provided with an artificial ceiling with small air gaps so as to have protection against heat.
iv. The roof covering should be properly fitted with the roofing structure so as to provide protection against storm.
v. The top of the roof should be provided with lightning conductor so as to protect the Inmates from lightning
The requirements of a good residential building are :
a. It should be situated at a good building site.
b. It should be properly planned and designed to provide adequate provision for reception, relaxation, recreation, cooking, dining, sleeping etc. in the building.
c. All the rooms of the building should be properly placed, according to their relative utility.
d. It should be properly oriented so as to provide physical comforts such as entrance of fresh air, morning sun rays etc. in the living rooms of the buildings.
e. It should provide privacy to the inmates outside as well as inside of the building.
f. It should provide free movement to inmates from one room to another and one floor to another in multi-storeyed buildings.
g. It should be equipped with modern sanitary fittings and electrical supply.
h. It should provide flexibility so that some religious ceremonies, get-togethers and small parties can be arranged in the building itself.
i. It should have good architectural appearance.
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What is site selection of a building? What factors should be considered while making site selection? Also give the precautions taken while selecting a site?
The site selection building generally effects its planning, design and construction. It may be selected as required or accepted as available.
The selection of site depends upon the purpose for which the proposed building is to be constructed.
The factors should be considered while making the selection of a site for a building are: as to provide good drainage.
a) Level of the site: The level of the site must be higher than that of its surroundings so as to provide good drainage.
b) Climatic conditions: The intensity of rainfall and sub-soll water level should be low so as to avoid dampness in the building. This factor is to be considered in case the choice is not limited to any part of the country.
c) Sub-soil conditions: A hard stratum should be available at reasonable depth so as to construct the foundation safely and economically.
d) Availability of modern amenities: The site must be within municipal limits so that modern amenities like water supply, electricity, drainage, roads are available.
e) Availability of other facilities: The site should provide as easy access from the nearest road and offer sufficient light and air. Good and cheap transport facilities should be available near the site.
f) Surroundings: The situation and surroundings of the site must be such as to suit the purpose for which the building is to be constructed.
Precautions taken selection site for building so as to have good planning and design of the building:
a) The site where there is deposited refuse, excreta or other such offensive matter, should be avoided as far as possible. No building shall be constructed on such site until the refuse has been removed there from and the site has been prepared in a manner suitable for building purposes.
b) Old quarry sites should also be avoided as far as possible.
c) The site must not be located in water logged area or on the bank of a river.
d) Any land passage or other area, adjacent to the building, should preferably be effectively drained by surface water drains.
e)The site should provide sufficient horizontal and vertical distances between the building and any overhead electric supply line.
f) The site should be away from the area causing foul odour or smoke nuisance due to industrial buildings.
g) The site for a residential or hospital building should be away from noisy places.
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What is orientation of a building? What are the objects of orientation of a building? State any two methods for orientation of a building?
The art of placing a building in such a position so that its front faces a particular direction is called orientation building.
The orientation also includes the arrangement of rooms of a building so as to provide natural comfort to the inmates.
Orientation needs first consideration after selection of site for proper planning and design of a building.
Functional requirements of Residential buildings
Objects of orientation of a building are:
a) To place the building so as to suit its surroundings.
b) To provide natural comfort to the inmates.
c) To provide privacy to the inmates.
d)To protect residents from dust nuisance.
e)To protect the inmates from nuisance of noise.
f)To place the building such that its minimum portion comes in contact with the direct showers of rain so as to prevent dampness in the building
g) To have good planning and design of the building.
The two different methods for orientation of a building are:
a) The sun’s path and it’s relative position with the locality:- The sun is a source of natural light and temperature.
Sunlight is a powerful agent for killing the germs for harmful diseases like tuberculosis, typhoid, cholera etc. which may otherwise breed in the dark and damp corners of the building.
It is also a good ventilating agent. It is, therefore, essential to orientate the building such that the sun rays may fall sufficiently on the building and enter its rooms through doors and windows.
b) The direction and Intensity of prevailing wind during summer and winter seasons: The building should be so oriented that cool breeze enters the bedroom during night in summer and not in winter.
It should also prevent direct entry of wind of heavy intensity into the building to protect from dust nuisance.
Why is the ventilation of a building important? What are the objects of ventilation? State the two different methods of ventilation?
The supply of outside air into, or removal of inside air from rooms of different buildings is called ventilation of buildings. The ventilation building is essential to adjust the flow of air current through its rooms, corridors, etc.
so as to remove foul air and to provide constant freshness of air in them. A well ventilated building is a sign of health and comfort to the inmates.
The following objects of ventilation of buildings are;
a) To provide constant freshness by replacing foul air with fresh air in the rooms of buildings.
b) To remove the unpleasant odour due to humidity and warmth.
c) To check breeding of bacteria, by continuous change in air.
There are two methods for ventilation
a) Natural method of buildings:
b) Artificial method
Natural method: In this method, the ventilation of a building is done normally by providing door and windows in the opposite walls of a room.
This process of providing doors and windows in opposite walls of a room is known as cross-ventilation.
In this method, the ventilation is caused due to the presence of wind outside and convection effects arising from temperature of vapour pressure difference (or both) between inside and outside the buildings.
The ventilation done by this method is called natural ventilation.
For good ventilation and light by natural methods, the aggregate area of door and window openings should not be less than one seventh of the floor area of the room as per specifications.
Artificial method: In this method, ventilation of a building is done artificially by providing either exhaust fans or pushing fans.
In case of exhaust fans, the foul air from the rooms is expelled out due to which there is reduction of pressure inside the room and thus fresh air enters through the doors and windows to take its place.
In case of pushing fans, outside air is blown into the rooms and in turn foul air moves out through the ventilators.
The ventilation done by pushing fans is known as positive ventilation, and the ventilation done by artificial method is called mechanical ventilation.