The Indian advanced construction techniques industry is experiencing a period of fast growth. Aiming to overcome the housing problem, it also has to face the dual challenge of fulfilling the needs of the client and maintain the quality standards.
The traditional methods of construction are inadequate in executing the work speedily with economy and quality. The construction industry in India must switch over to advanced construction techniques to achieve its goal in “minimum time with maximum efficiency”.
Table of Contents
ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES – NECESSITY
- The building construction activity, especially the residential and commercial complex is highly labour intensive with very little mechanization. Approximately 35% of the total construction cost is spent on labour.
- The labourers have their limitations and may fail to meet the time limits. The quality of workmanship, too, differs from person to person. Hence, quality standards cannot be maintained. Wastage of material is considerably high as it is handled and utilized manually.
- The objective of the construction organizations should be ‘speed and economy’. This cannot be achieved with labour oriented advanced construction techniques.
- Only studying and adopting modern industrial techniques and equipment is the solution. By this, one can save material, reduce labour expenses, and increase the speed of work, leading to the economy in construction.
- Though the scope of the subject is vast, in this chapter we shall discuss only the advanced techniques to be used in advanced construction techniques activities.
The equipment with proven utility in building construction may be as listed below
- Chain and pulley block.
- Grouting pumps.
- Sprayers for painting work.
- Tile cutters.
- Portable hand drilling machines.
- Horizontal trolleys, wheelbarrows.
- Vibrators for compaction of concrete, surface vibrators.
- Auto ramming concrete block machine.
- Sand washing machine.
- Vertical lifts, hoists, winches.
- M.S. tubular scaffolding, and formwork.
- Concrete mixers.
- Earth excavators.
- The engineer in-charge should study, develop, and implement the advanced techniques, to improve the quality of work, with speed and economy. Some of the techniques are listed below
- The different work stages through which basic material is converted into the finished product, maybe studied.
- The relation between different work stages are established as a flowchart.
- Works are planned and executed according to the work and time study.
- Planning and execution of the activities ís done according to bar charts, C.P.M., and P.E.R.T.
- Suggestions are put forth, discussed, and implemented to improve quality.
- Prefabricated and precast units are utilized, wherever possible.
- Admixtures and plasticizers are used for concreting and water-proofing.
- ‘Design mix and weigh batching’ are used for mass concreting.
- Easily detachable lightweight tubular structures are used.
- Modern methods of curing are adopted.
- Advanced adhesives and chemicals are used.
- Simultaneous execution of the activities are arranged.
- Work is executed in shifts.
- Activities are crashed.
- Task work is delegated to the laborers along with incentives.
USE OF COMPUTER IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY
With the evolution of computer technology, the dimensions of the computer have shrunk while increasing its power and speed. The advanced technology of computers has valuable applications in building construction. They are
- Construction management.
- Structural design.
- Estimation and costing
- Architects and interior designers in pune.
- Financial management.
1. COMPUTER FOR CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
- By simplifying his job, a person can implement the technique of management. The manual methods of preparing bar charts, C.P.M., P.E.R.T., etc. have limitations. As the complexity of the project increases, computers prove advantageous.
- Computers can depict the entire network graphically and simultaneously provide a labor report of the progress of each task. Modifications and alterations can be incorporated and the effect on the remaining activities is automatically computed. This income a very useful option in time crashing. Computers provide a quick and easy reference to study the change in time estimate of one or more activities.
- P.E.R.T. involves statistical calculation for estimated times. Computers are useful in providing a guideline framework. It is useful in accurate computations, quick response, and the ability to react to modifications. This helps in saving time and money.
2. COMPUTER FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN
Structural design is an engineering science and is most suited for computing. The designs of beams and slabs can be computerized. On keying in the various loads, sizes of steel and other parameters are ready for implementation. The designs are accurate and quick. Appropriate drawings can also be plotted through computer programs.
3. COMPUTER FOR ESTIMATION AND COSTING
It involves simple calculations like multiplication and addition. But whereas manual calculations might be faulty, the computer calculates with great speed and accuracy.
4. COMPUTER FOR ARCHITECTURAL AND INTERIOR DESIGNS
The working drawings, electrical layouts, furniture drawings, etc. can be prepared with a computer. It develops a dimensional perspective and helps in better visualization. Any minor error is easily detected and can be modified before the actual work begins. The color scheme of the project or interior decoration can also be finalized with the help of computers.
Financial management can be controlled through computerized financial and material schedules. Updated programs specify the monthly financial requirements. Work is never held up for lack of funds if computer technology is properly implemented.
OTHER BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES – TECHNOLOGY
Some new, cost-effective and time-saving techniques used in building advanced construction technology are
1. LIGHTWEIGHT BLOCKS & CONCRETE
The density of normal concrete varies from 2200 to 2600 kg/m3 while that of lightweight concrete varies from 300 to 1850 kg/m³.
- Reduction of dead load.
- Increases the progress of work.
- Lowers the handling cost.
- This leads to a lighter structural design.
- Advantageous for structures resting on weak soils.
2. FERROCRETE TECHNIQUES
Ferrocrete consists of wire mesh and cement mortar. The wire mesh is spaced closely & impregnated with a rich cement mortar mix.
- It has got a higher ratio of tensile strength to weight and superior cracking behavior compared to R.C.C.
- It can be used for septic tanks, water tanks, fishing boats, roofs and wall panels for low-cost housing, bio-gas digesters, silos, kitchen otta, door and window frames, cupboard, etc.
- It is cheaper than conventional concrete.
3. EARTH MOVING MACHINES
For mass excavation works & a huge amount of filling, earthmoving machines are useful. They save considerable time & manpower.
- Save time.
- Save manpower.
- Useful for mass excavation & filling basements, canals, etc.
4. SLIP TUNNEL FORMWORK TECHNIQUES
For mass concreting of high rise buildings, slip tunnel formwork can be used.
- Save the de-shuttering & shuttering time.
- More number of repetitions for formwork
- More accuracy in work.
- Reduce labour.
- Overall quality increases, with a reduction in cost.
- Most suitable for identical vertical lifts.
5. PRECAST COMPONENTS
They are factory-made components of the building which are joined to form the structure.
- Controlled quality of the final product.
- Better curing and higher strength due to mechanization.
- Saves space for raw material stackings.
- Reduces the requirement of skilled labour.
- Increase in construction speed due to symmetrical and simple joining methods.
- Saves, total project time.
- Dependability of the activities can be nullified & most of the activities can be taken up simultaneously.
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