This chapter talks about how to ensure effective control on accidents and safety precautions at construction sites. The precautionary measures for avoiding accidents are also discussed in detail.
ACCIDENTS AND SAFETY PRECAUTION AT CONSTRUCTION SITE – PLANNING
- The basic function of management is planning and programming.
- Lowering of operational costs and reduction in the number of accidents on the site should be its ultimate objective.
- The accident prevention program has to be well planned and effectively monitored and controlled.
- Accidents can be minimized by ensuring the implementation of the safety code at all levels in the construction project. Enlisted are some guidelines.
- Site engineers along with the contractors must work out a safety program.
- All the working spots should be inspected periodically to detect any flaws in the program and to monitor its performance.
- All accidents must be investigated to reinforce the safety program.
- Accidents and safety precaution at construction site statistics should be compiled.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITE SAFETY
- Determine and incorporate a suitable course of action in the day-to-day activities, for the effective implementation of any safety program.
- To eliminate the factors affecting the safety program, the problems should be discussed to find solutions, in a fortnightly meeting.
- Analyze all upcoming activities, identify the possible hazards, and finalize the precautions to be taken.
- Monitor the performance of the safety program and suggest improvements if required.
- Identify any unsafe working conditions/ locations by inspecting the site twice a week.
- Investigate all accidents and reinforce the safety program with additional precautions.
- The site engineer should inspect the work spot daily to check any unsafe acts of the workmen and to eliminate any unsafe work conditions.
- Keep first aid /fire fighting equipment safety appliances on the site and ensure that they are maintained in a good condition.
- Work out the cost of all the accidents that occurred during the month year.
- supervisors should give ‘safety instructions’ to the workers every day and highlight the possible hazards in the day’s work in addition to the precautions to be taken by the Site of the workers.
- Site supervisors should eliminate any unsafe conditions in their area of operation. They should keep the work area, especially the upper floors, clean and free of any loose material.
- Site offices should have a list of the following emergency telephone numbers
- Fire = 101
- Ambulance = 102
- Police = 100
Everyone should participate in ensuring the implementation of safety precautions.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE KIT BUILDING SITE
- Safety precautions play a vital role in protecting workmen from injury while executing the work.
- Some important safety kits are listed below. They must be maintained in good condition.
- Safety helmets are used where work is in progress at different levels.
- Safety belts – used by those working at a height, on the exterior of the building.
- Hand gloves used for material handling, gas cutter, welding machine, etc.
- Safety goggles used for gas welding, grinding, pavement breaking, etc.
- Gumboots – used during asphalting, cutting of hard rock, concreting works, etc.
10 Common Accidents at the Construction site
MAJOR POSSIBLE INJURIES AND FIRST AID FIRST AID
1. FIRST AID
- First aid is the immediate care, of a temporary nature, given to the victim of an accident/sudden illness until the treatment of a doctor can be made available.
- The person giving first aid should know what is to be done at the time of crisis.
- Improper and careless handling of the injury may increase its severity and may even cause death.
- Dressing cotton
- General medicines
- Triangular bandage
- 25 mm roller bandage
- 75 mm roller bandage
- Potassium paramagnet
- Iodine bottle
- A packet of cotton wool
- Safety pins
3. MAJOR POSSIBLE INJURIES
In construction work, great care is required for three major causes of injuries.
- Sudden stopping of respiration.
Normally bleeding can be controlled by applying direct pressure to the affected area of the wound, with a sterile dressing/ cloth.
Keeping the victim in lying the position will control the bleeding to some extent.
B. SUDDEN RESPIRATORY BLOCKAGE
- In the case of electric shocks, gas poisoning, suffocation, etc. where breathing stops, immediate attention is required.
- Mouth to mouth respiration should be started, as shown in Fig. 12.4. immediately until the victim starts breathing on his own or the help of a doctor is made available.
- In the case of visible fractures or even a suspected fracture, the adjacent joints should be immobilized.
- Any bleeding along with the fracture should be controlled while carrying the victim to the doctor.
- Care should be taken not to disturb the fractured bone.
CAUSES OF ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITE
Some common causes of electrical accidents caused at sites are
- Inserting loose wires in sockets, without a plug pin.
- A common practice, it is the most common cause of all electrical accidents at construction sites. Unskilled helpers/carpenters/fitters insert the earthing wire (green wire) into the live terminal of the socket passing the current directly into the equipment. So the person holding the equipment suffers a shock.
- Avoiding the use of gloves while working on a live line.
- The improper joining of the cables and the wires.
- Exposed switches.
- Installing the switch plug socket units an open area, without any protection from the rain/water.
LIST OF POSSIBLE ACCIDENTS, PRECAUTIONS, AND ACTIONS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE WORK
- The most basic requirement of controlling accidents and implementing a safety precaution program is to be aware of all the accident-prone situations and exercise precautionary measures to overcome them.
- This is discussed in the tabular format. List of possible accidents at the site.
- Precautionary measures for various accidents and safety precautions at the construction site.
- Immediate actions to be taken in case of an accident.
- Even though the list covers most of the situations leading to an accident, accidents can happen in the most unpredictable situations, so safety precautions should be practiced at all times to avoid any accidents and safety precaution at construction site.
- It is the duty of all the site staff to remain alert and be sure about the safety precautions in all types of work.
- If contractors/subcontractors do not oblige in the implementation of the safety precautions. it is advisable to delay the work on safety grounds.
SNAKE BITE PRECAUTIONS AND FIRST AID
2. TYPES OF SNAKES
One should know whether the snake was poisonous or non-poisonous.
3. IDENTIFICATION OF POISONOUS AND NONPOISONOUS SNAKE
- Two rows of marking made by small teeth can be seen after the bite.
- Often the markings are not clear. Sometimes only one tooth mark can be observed.
- Small teeth wounds or a scratch on the skin is observed. In case of doubt or symptoms of snake poisoning, the victim should be kept under observation for at least 24 hours.
SYMPTOMS OF POISONOUS SNAKE BITES (COBRA AND KRAIT)
- Severe pain
- Difficulty in breathing
- Weakening of pulse
- Dropping of eyelids and difficulty in speech
- The tongue may be paralyzed.
- A person may die due to respiratory failure (Breathing trouble).
- Burning pain and painful swelling at the bitten area, accompanied by painful lymphangitis (gath).
- The bluish-purple ring at the bitten area, after twelve hours.
- In several cases, blood vomiting is observed that results in death.
- Immediate local swelling within a few minutes.
FIRST AID TREATMENT ON SNAKE BITE
- Tie a cloth immediately around the portion above the bite. It should be loosened for a few seconds, at a regular interval of 30 minutes.
- Keep the patient in a resting position and do not allow the affected portion of the body to move.
- Wash the wound with clean water.
- Snake venom should be sucked out.
- Seek medical treatment immediately at the nearest place.
- Snake antidotes should be kept on the site where possibilities of snake bites exist.
RESPONSIBILITIES IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS