How rodent and fleas vector is controlled ?
When controlling flea-borne diseases such as plague and murine typhus, never attack the rodents before first getting rid of the fleas. Otherwise, when the rats are gone, the fleas will attack humans. The effective ways to get rid of rodents and fleas are:
a. Chemical control dusting rodent footpaths with insecticide dust/powder is effective for large scale flea control (during outbreaks of typhus or plague).
When the rats groom themselves, the dust spreads on their fur, thus killing the fleas.
b. Mechanical Protection and Sanitation: These are the only permanent methods for reducing rodent populations in refugee camps. Efforts should be made to store all food in rat-proof containers.
The final disposal of solid wasteshould be done in a location and manner that does not encourage rat breeding or create other environmental health risks.
Burial or incineration may be used to finally dispose of household waste and refuse from markets and
c. Traps: Trapping rats is good for publicity but generally catches only the sick and the stupid rodents.
d. Poisons: Rodenticides are generally not recommended for refugee camps.
e. Caution to Rodent Trapping safe handling: Lassa fever is common and the virus is spread through the urine of rats. If trapped, these rats have to be disposed of without direct contact between the human and the rat corps as they urinate wildly and their bodies become covered in the virus.
Discuss how other pests and vectors are controlled? How rodent and fleas vector is controlled?
Vectors and pests of less urgent concern can be controlled through environmental, mechanical, biological, or chemical control, as summarized below.
Possible Vector Control Measures
VECTOR POSSIBLE CONTROL MEASURES
- Lice mass laundering in hot water; mass delousing with insecticide powder
- Mites mass laundering; supply adequate water for washing and distribute soap for the community
- Ticks clearing vegetation or insecticide spraying is difficult to apply
- Bedbugs household and personal hygiene: insecticide spraying
- Black Flies larviciding breeding sites in surrounding rivers
- Cockroaches protect food, insecticide powder or spraying
- Snails sanitation measures, drain water or speed up water flow, spray molluscicides
Rodent Prevention & Control
What points should be kept in mind while using the pesticides?
Vector control measures should address two principle concerns: efficacy and safety: They should be carried out according to internationally agreed methods and ensure that staff and the affected population are adequately protected.
There are three points about pesticide safety that should be emphasised in refugee camp settings:
1. Safe Use and Storage of Pesticides: Extra precaution should be taken in choosing insecticides and deciding when, how, and for how long to apply them. Strict procedures must be followed when handling Insecticides and other related equipment.
Pesticides and the spray machines should never be transported vehicles that are also used for carrying food. They must be stored in locked and ventilated buildings. There is an increased danger of pesticide poisoning among displaced populations.
Poisoning may be unintentional, but the danger exists because of the lack of toys for children to play with the novelty of the situation, and the traumatic experience of being displaced.
2. Safe Storage and Disposal of Used Insecticide Containers: Strict guidelines have been developed for this and they should be implemented to ensure that the displaced community cannot obtain used pesticide containers.
3. Safety of the Spray Staff: Recruitment guidelines usually call for sprayers who:
- have had prior training on the safe use of pesticides
- have protective clothing (uniforms, gloves, masks etc.)
- never smoke, drink, or eat during the job
- have access to good washing facilities after the job is done
It is rare to find sprayers that meet all of the above conditions in refugee situations. Soappropriate training, protective clothing and equipment, and washing facilities shouldbe provided.
Discuss major food borne diseases from microorganisms.
The microorganisms causing food borne diseases are Salmonellosis Campylobacteriosis, E. coli, Vibrio cholerae
1. Salmonellosis is a major problem in most countries. Salmonellosis is caused by the Salmonella bacteria and symptoms are fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Examples of foods involved in outbreaks of salmonellosis are eggs, poultry and other meats, raw milk and chocolate.
2. Campylobacteriosis is a widespread infection. It is caused by certain species of Campylobacter bacteria. Foodborne cases are mainly caused by foods such as raw milk, raw or undercooked poultry and drinking water.
Acute health effects of campylobacteriosis include severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea and diarrhoea. In two to ten per cent of cases the infection may lead to chronic health problems, including reactive arthritis and neurological disorders.
3. E. Coli Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic (causing intestinal bleeding) E. coli, e.g. E.coli O157, and listeriosis are important foodborne diseases which have emerged over the last decades.
Although their incidence is relatively low, their severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, particularly among infants, children and the elderly, make them among the most serious foodborne infections.
4. Cholera is a major public health problem in developing countries, also causing enormous economic losses. The disease is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In addition to water, contaminated foods can be the vehicle of infection.
Different foods, including rice, vegetables, millet gruel and various types of seafood have been implicated in outbreaks of cholera. Symptoms, including abdominal pain, vomiting and profuse watery diarrhoea, may lead to severe dehydration and possibly death, unless fluid and salt are replaced.
Discuss different methods for Pasteurization.
The different methods of pasteurization are:
1. High Temperature Short Time Treatment. Milk is pasteurized at 161°F for 15 seconds.
2. Low Temperature Long Time Treatment. Milk is pasteurized at 145 F for 30 minutes.
3. Flash Pasteurization. This type of pasteurization, which involves high temperature for 3 to 15 seconds followed by cooling and packaging, is used for drink boxes and other liquids that can be stored for long periods of time without
4. Steam Pasteurization. Pressurized steam is used to kill E. coli, Salmonella, and Listeria in beef carcasses. Exposure of the beef to steam results in a surface temperature of about 200 F.
Also Read This.
- what strategies are adopted to control mosquitoes
- Discuss the factors that make displaced populations more susceptible to vector borne diseases
- Write short note on dust falljar
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