what is the importance of road transportation in india?
The importance of highway transportation can be easily judged from the following advantage points of roads.
1. Roads can be constructed to penetrate the interior of any region and to connect in remote villages especially in hilly regions where the provision of railway lines becomes, uneconomical,
2. Roads can be constructed at a comparatively lower initial cost than any other mode of transport. Motor vehicles are comparatively cheaper than other carriers like rail locomotives and airplanes.
3. Roads are used by various means of transport like private cars, two-wheelers, cycles, etc.
4. The cost of maintenance is also cheaper than railway tracks, airports,s, and harbors.
5. The Road transport offers quick and assured deliveries.
6. Road transport offers flexible service free from fixed schedules. Any number of motor vehicles can be used into service quickly to meet sudden demand.
7. Road transport permits simple packing of goods to be transported.
8. Road transport has a high employment potential.
9. Road transport is the only economical means for short hauls.
10. Roads help in maintaining law and order in a country.
11. Roads have helped operations related to flood and famine relief.
12. Roads help in tourism development, some of the monuments, parks, and sanctuaries are accessible only by roads.
Discuss the roads in Mughal and British Period.
The roads were greatly improved in India during the Mughal period. Many of the highways built or maintained by Mughals received great appreciation from foreign visitors. The road from Delhí to Daultabad was constructed by Mahammed Tughlag. The roads from Agra to Allahabad and from Ujain to Bijapur were constructed by the Muslim emperor.
The period covering the decline of the Mughals and the beginning of British rule was a period of neglect of the road system. During this period, the road condition deteriorated. The early British interest was only in maintaining roads of military importance.
William Bentinck is takes steps to build the modern Grand Trunk Road from Calcutta to Delhi with permanent bridges and good stones. Lord Dalhousie gave further momentum to road construction by forming the P.W.D.in place of Military Board in 1885. With the development of the railway, the attention of the Government was shifted from development.
The work of road construction and maintenance was given secondary importance. Major roads, except those of military importance, were neglected and
attention was mainly on the feeder roads.
When, where and why the Central Road Research Institute was established?
In 1950, the Central Government appointed Indian Road Development committee under the chairmanship of M.R. Jayakar to report on the condition of. existing roads and to suggest ways and means for their further development, The Jayakar committee submitted its report on 1928 with the recommendations that since the provincial governments and the local bodies are unable to look after all the roads; the road development in the country should be taken up by the Central Government,
1. To carry out basic and applied research for the design, construction, and maintenance of various roads.
2. To carry out research on traffic safety and transport economics.
3. To research on economical utilization of locally available materials for construction and maintenance of roads.
To develop new machinery, tools, equipment, and instruments for highway engineering.
4. To provide technical advice and consultancy services to various organizations.
5. To provide library and documentation services.
The institute is headed by a Director and has the following wings:
Soil and Geotechnical Engineering
Extension Traffic and transportation
Environment and safety.
What is Indian Road Congress (IRC)? What are its functions?
The Indian Road Congress is established in the Central Government in 1934 as per the recommendations of the Jayakar Committee, The I.R.C. was constituted to provide a forum for regular pooling of experience and ideas on all matters affecting the construction and maintenance of roads in India.
Presently the Indian Road Congress has become the active body to recommend specifications regarding the design and construction of roads and bridges. The indian IRC works in close collaboration with the Road india wing of the Ministry of surface transport, Government of India.
IRC publishes journals, standard specifications, and guidelines on various aspects of highway engineering, The technical activities of the IRC are carried out by experts in each subject.
Functions of Indian Road Congress: The IRC is a body of professional highway Engineers, having the following functions:
1. To provide a forum for the expression of the collective opinion of its members for all matters affecting the construction and maintenance of roads in India.
2. To promote the use of standard specifications and practices.3. To suggest improved methods of planning, design construction, maintenance administration of roads.
4. To conduct periodical meetings to discuss technical questions regarding roads,
5. To make laws for the development, improvement, and protection of roads.
6. To furnish and maintain libraries and museums for encouraging the science of road-making.
what is importance of Highway Transportation |Highway engineering|wahthu|
how roads are classified in india? Explain.
Roads are classified into the following two broad categories:
1. Urban roads are those which fall within the jurisdiction of municipalities and cantonment as follows.
Urban roads are classified as follows:
(b) Arterial streets
(c) Sub-arterjal streets
(d) Collector streets
(e) Local streets
(a) Expressways: These are divided arterial highways for motor traffic and are provided generally with grade separation at intersections. The main function of expressways is to provide for the movement of heavy traffic at high speed.
(b) Arterial: Arterial streets are streets primarily meant for through traffic usually on a continuous route. Arterial streets, along with expressways, serve as the principal network for through traffic flow. A properly developed and designated arterial street system would help to identify residential neighborhoods, industrial areas, and commercial areas.
(c) Sub-arterial Streets: These are streets of a somewhat lower level of mobility than arterial streets. These are spaced at 0.5 km in the central business area and from 3 to 5 Km in sub-urban fringes.
(d) Collector Streets: These are intended for collecting and distributing the traffic to and from local:
streets and also for providing access to arterial streets.
(e) Local Streets: Local streets are primarily intended for access to the residence, business, or other abutting property. These streets do not carry a large volume of traffic
(ii) Non-urban roads are those located in areas other than urban areas. They are also known as rural roads, The non-urban roads are classified into five categories. This classification is popularly known as IRC classification of roads.
Also, Read This.