Railways are the most developed means of transportation in India. It has helped the national production, social and industrial development, and the economic status_of the country. The necessity of railways can be felt from the following railway’s necessity advantages:
- Railways have united the people of different castes, religions, customs, and traditions and thus strengthen national unity.
- Railways help in the mass migration of the population.
- Railways provide a convenient and safe means of transport for the country.
- By traveling together into a compartment without any caste bar, the social outlook of the masses has been broadened.
- Almost all the religious places are connected without any railway and hence it acts as a special boon to pilgrims.
- Railway_provides employment to millions of people and thus helps in solving the unemployment problems.
- Speedy distribution of natural resources and agricultural products is achieved through railways.
- Railways play a vital role in transportation food and clothing to the affected areas during famines.
- Railways also help in maintaining law and order in the country.
- Railways help in the price stabilization of commodities due to better mobility of products.
- Railways help to increase the national wealth as land value increases due to industrial development.
- Railways help in increasing the earning and standard of living of Indian people.
How Indian railways are classified? Discuss in detail?
It is based on the importance of route, traffic carried, and maximum permissible speed, the railway board has classified the Indian railway lines into the following three categories:
1. Main lines
2. Branch lines
3. Trunk routes
1) Main Lines: The lines which carry 10 Gross Million Tonnes per annum or more for B.G and 2.5 GMT or more for M.G. and where maximum permissible speed allowed is 75 km/hr for B.G are called main lines.
The specification laid down by Railway Board for main lines are given in the table.
Table: Specification for main line
|1||Design speed for new tracks||120 km/hr||75 km/hr|
|2||Maximum permissible||100 km/hr||75 km/hr|
|3||Tracks relaying periods||20 years||30|
|5||Rail section||52 kg/m Lenght||37.2 kg/m Lenght|
2) Branch Lines: Branch line carry load less than10 @MT/Annum for B.G and le8s than 2.5 GMTIAnnum for M.G and where maximum permisibI6 speed allowed is less than 100 km/hr for 8.0and 76 KVhr for M.C.
3) Trunk Routeel The following specification for trunk routes has been given by Railway Board.
Table: Specification for trunk routes
|1||Design speed for new tracks||160 km/hr||100 km/hr|
|2||Maximum permissible speed||120 km/hr||80 km/hr|
|3||Rail section||52 kg/m||37.2 kg/m|
|4||Degree of curvature||7 and a half degre||any suitable degree|
|5||Ballast cushion||25 cm blow sleeper||25 cm below the sleeper|
What are the types of Railways? Explain Briefly.
The following four types of Railways are available
1. Surface Railways
2. Underground Railways
3. Tube Railway
4. Elevated Railway
Surface Rallwaye: These are the railway provided over the ground surface. In this system, the rails are laid either on an embankment or in cutting and is the most extensively used throughout the world because of Ite less initial cost of construction.
Underground Railways: Underground and low-level Railways are railways provided just below ground level. Tunnels are constructed for carrying tracks in this system of railways. Only electrically operated engines are used in the underground railways. These railways are suitable in congested urban areas where the traffic intensity on-road le heavy. The metro rail in Calcutta is an example of underground. railways.
Tube Railways: This system of the railway is constructed underground at a depth of 18 m or more. This is called a tube railway as the tunnel carrying the trackie like a tube. The purpose of providing a tube railway is to avoid Interference of the track with underground gas sewerage and oil pipes as well as water.
Elevated Railways: Those railways are provided at the elevated portions above the ground surface. In this system of railways, the track is laid on the deck of a continuous viaduct which is supported on pier or columns. The railways are suitable in the heavily congested urban areas where the underground railways cannot be constructed. The metro rail which la under construction in Delhi is an example of an Elevated railway.
Types of Trains in India
How the development of railways in India was achieved through fine year plans?
First Five Year Plan: In this plan, railways was allotted Rs. 420 Crores out of the total expenditure Ks. 2069 crores. Under this plan, rehabilitation of railway assesses was the main problem of railway development. This plan considerably helped India in achieving self-sufficiency and railway facilities were improved.
Second Five Year Plan: In this plan, a total provision of Rs. 1125 crores was made for the development of the Indian railways. Many more locomotives, passenger coaches, and wagons were introduced. During the plan, considerable progress was made in the electrification of railways. This plan made the country self-sufficient in railway equipment.
Third Five Year Plan: It had a total provision of Rs. 1470 crores to be spent on Railways and its rolling stock. Many more locomotives, passenger coaches, and wagons were acquired. 2400kms of new lines were also constructed. Construction of many bridges, railway station, staff quarters are other facilities which were taken up during this plan.
Forth Five Year Plan: In this plan, sum of Rs. 1000 crores was provided for the railway development programmed. Much stress was given for the addition and replacement of rolling stock.
Fifth Five Year Plan: It had total provisions of 3250 crores for the development of the Indian Railway. The conversion meter gauge over the largest area.
Broad gauge was taken in hand in order to have the same gauge
what is gauge in railway? What are different types of Gauges used in Indian Railways?
The clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of the two rails forming a track is known as Gauge. Originally, the wheels of the railway vehicles were provided with flanges on the outside. So the distance between the outer face of rails of another track was considered as a gauge.
Types of Gauge In India: The different gauges prevalent in India are of the following:-
4. Broad Gauge (1676 mm): It is also known as a standard gauge in India. When the clear horizontal distance between the interfaces of two parallel rails forming a track is 1676mm, the broadest gauge of the world.
5. Meter Gauge (1000 mm): When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two parallel rails forming a track is 1000 mm, the gauge is known as Meter Gauge.
6. Narrow Gauge (762 mm and 610 mm): When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of twò parallel rails forming a track is either 762 mm or 610 mm, the gauge is known as narrow gauge. It is also known as a Feeder gauge or light gauge.
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