Eco-friendly construction involves the use of materials and processes that are resource-efficient and environmentally responsible throughout the life cycle of a building. Long dismissed as being costly, green buildings have seen a surge in popularity thanks to the many advantages they have over non-green buildings that range from environmental to social and economic.
The green building concept is gaining importance in various countries, these are buildings the ensure that waste in minimized at every stage during the construction and operation of the building resulting in low costs according to the experts in the technology.
Green buildings designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by :
1. Efficient using energy, water, and other resources.
2. Protecting occupant’s health and improving employee productivity.
3. Reducing waste, pollution, and environmental degradation.
“Green building technology should reach all”
Table of Contents
WHAT IS GREEN BUILDINGS?
Green Building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle :
From planning to design, construction, operation. maintenance, renovation, and demolition.
This requires close cooperation of the contractor, the architects in Pune the engineers, and the client at all project stages.
The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility,
A green building is that building is constructed at a well-planed location with proper design and sustainable materials. Fitted and painted with eco-friendly materials.
The building should give its occupants a healthy and comfortable environment in all climates. It remains cool in
summer, warm in winter, inside fully protected from rain, gives natural pollution-free air and light through doors,
windows and ventilators without any artificial means. For particular requirements, it has solar, wind power, and eco-friendly electrical, mechanical, etc. devices.
A green building should have all safety devices. It should be provided with potable water, having proper drainage, sewerage, and a rainwater harvesting system. The building should be surrounded with trees, plants, and grass to provide natural greenery. More than just installing solar panels on your roof.
Can the above building be possible when day by day the population in India is increasing at a very fast rate?
What is green building? concept in india 2021
NEW PROJECT PLANNING
1. Construction: Reduce the amount of waste generated at a construction site.
2. Design: Building design details will help to reduce construction materials and energy/water requirements
3. Material selection: Careful selection of construction materials will leave less of an environmental impact.
1. Construction waste accounts for 10 to as much as 30% of the municipal waste stream.
2. Goal : Reduce/ Reuse/ Recycle
(a) Building design based on standard sizes of materials.
(b) Buy higher quality to reduce rejects.
(c) Recycle (use scraps).
(e) Renovate on an existing building.
Goal. To design the building so that it requires less energy/water and is healthier for inhabitants when it is complete and in use.
1. Air ducts for efficient and healthy airflow.
3. Windows designed for maximum daylight.
4. Passive solar control.
5. Solar cells.
6. Heat exchanger for the climate control system.
Goal. Choose materials that have low environmental costs and do not contribute to indoor air pollution.
1. Engineered Lumber (recycled and reclaimed material).
2. Doors and windows (energy and placement).
3. Floor coverings (recycled with no off-gassing).
4. Roof materials (Reflective and light).
5. Energy-efficient appliances.
GOALS OF GREEN BUILDING
1. Life cycle assessment.
2. Siting and structure design efficiency.
3. Energy efficiency.
4. Water efficiency.
5. Materials efficiency.
6. Indoor environmental quality enhancement.
7. Operations and maintenance optimization.
8. Waste reduction.
9. Reduce impact onto electricity network.
ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS OF GREEN BUILDING
A green building has four main elements or components on which it is designed Materials, energy, water, and health to make green building more sustainable.
1. Materials for Green Building.
2. Energy Systems in Green Buildings.
3. Water management in Green Building.
4. Health components of Green Building.
MATERIALS FOR GREEN BUILDING
Green building materials are that are local and renewable. Local materials often are unique to the place and connect whatever people make within an area or region. Materials from the ground such as clay, sand, and stone are green materials as they are found underfoot. Plant materials such as grasses, straw wood, and bamboo are also materials that have been used by humans since they started building. Plant materials that grow quickly are for the most part renewable.
Reclaimed materials are materials that can be reused in their existing form for new purposes. Reclaimed materials are green in the sense that they can be re-purposed and reused Recyclable materials are materials that can move from being waste materials to being reused through reprocessing or re-purposing.
Green materials today are defined as materials that are non-toxic improve occupancy health, lower cost and conserve energy and water use and waste products. Non-toxic materials are materials that do not cause harm to the environment to the users of the materials or to the producers of the materials.
Green materials are also materials that have low embedded energy in their harvesting or collection, production.
transportation and use.
ENERGY SYSTEMS IN GREEN BUILDINGS
Building modified with passive energy systems optimizes energy consumption. The sustainable prototype encompasses all aspects of passive energy gain through intelligent passive design, utilizing and harnessing the natural fluctuations in temperature and air movement in our building caused by the predictable changes in the movements of the sun through the cycle of the seasons.
Green buildings also incorporate energy-efficient lighting, low energy appliances, and renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines and solar panels.
PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDING DESIGN
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, reflect and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in summer. This is called passive solar design because unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of Mechanical and electrical devices
Rules of Passive Solar Systems :
1. The building should be elongated on an east-west axis.
2. The buildings south face should receive sunlight between the hours of 9.00 AM and 3.00 PM (Sun time) during the heating season.
3. Interior spaces requiring the most light and heating and cooling should be along the south face of the building. Less used spaces should be located on the north.
The advantages of Passive Solar Design :
1. High Energy Performance. Lower energy bills throughout the year.
2. Investment. Independent from future rises in fuel costs, continues to save money long after initial cost recovery.
3. Value. High owner satisfaction, high resale value.
PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING
Using the sun’s energy to heat a building, the windows, walls, and floors can be designed to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter (and also to reject solar heat in the summer).
The goal of all passive solar heating systems is to capture the sun’s heat within the building’s elements and release that heat during periods when the sun is not shining. At the same time that the building’s elements (or materials) is absorbing heat for later use, solar heat is available for keeping the space comfortable (not overheated).
1. Two primary elements of passive solar heating are required
(a) South facing glass
(b) Thermal mass to absorb, store and distribute heat.
2. There are three approaches to passive systems:
(a) Direct Gain: Sunlight shines into and warms the living space.
(b) Indirect Gain: Sunlight warms thermal storage, which then warms the living space.
(c) Isolated Gain: Sunlight warms another room (sunroom) and convention brings the warmed air into the living space.
WATER MANAGEMENT IN GREEN BUILDING
In simple language, water efficiency means reducing the usage of water and minimizing wastewater. Water efficiency implies using improved technologies and practices that deliver equal or better service with reduced water consumption.
Minimizing water use is achieved by installing greywater and rainwater catchment systems that recycle water for irrigation or toilet flushing; water-efficient appliances, such as low flow showerheads self-closing or spray taps; low-flush toilets, or waterless composting toilets. Installing point of use hot water system and logging pipes saves on water heating.
RAINWATER HARVESTING IN GREEN BUILDING
Rainwater harvesting is the principle of collecting and using precipitation from a catchment’s surface.
Old technology is gaining popularity in a new way. Rainwater harvesting is enjoying a renaissance of sorts in
the world, but it traces its history to biblical times.
Extensive rainwater harvesting apparatus existed 4000 years ago in Palestine and Greece. In ancient Rome, residences were built with individual cisterns and paved courtyards to capture rainwater to augment water from the city’s aqueducts.
RAINWATER HARVESTING IS ESSENTIAL
Surface water is inadequate to meet our demand and we have to depend on groundwater. Due to rapid urbanization, the infiltration of rainwater into the subsoil has decreased drastically and recharging of groundwater has diminished. The main purpose of the rainwater harvesting system to collect and store rainwater for use in the future.
As seriously consider conserving water by harvesting and managing this natural resource by artificially recharging the system to increase the underground water table.
RAINWATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUES FOR GREEN BUILDINGS
There are two main techniques of rainwater harvesting.
Storage of rainwater on the surface for future use.
1. Storage of rainwater on the surface for future use.
2. Recharge to groundwater.
1. storage of rainwater on the surface for future use. the storage of rainwater on the surface is a traditional technique and structure used were underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs, etc.
2. Recharge to groundwater. Recharge to groundwater is a new concept of rainwater harvesting and the structures generally used are Pits, Trenches, Dugwells, Hand pumps, etc.
HEALTH COMPONENTS OF GREEN BUILDING
The health component of green buildings is to improve air and water quality within structures, as well as the productivity of their occupants. One EPA report states that indoor air pollutant levels are about two to five times higher than those of outdoor air.
Using non-toxic materials and products will improve indoor air quality, and reduce the rate of asthma, allergy, and sick building syndrome. These materials are emission-free, have low or no VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) content, and the moisture-resistant to deter moulds, spores, and other microbes.
Indoor air quality is also addressed through ventilation systems and materials that control humidity and allow a
building to breathe.
In addition to the above areas, a green building should provide cost savings to the builder and occupants and meet the broader needs of the community, by using local labor, providing affordable housing and ensuring the building is sited appropriately for community needs.
IMPORTANCE OF GREEN BUILDING
WHY IS GREEN BUILDING IMPORTANT?
The growth and development of communities have a large impact on our natural environment. The manufacturing, design, construction, and operation of the buildings in which we live and work are responsible for the consumption of many of our natural resources.
IN THE UNITED STATES, BUILDINGS ACCOUNT FOR
1. 39% of total energy use.
2. 68% of total electricity consumption.
3.30% of landfill waste.
4.38% of carbon dioxide emissions.
5. 12 % total water consumption.
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF GREEN BUILDING
1. Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems.
2. Improve air and water quality.
3. Reduce waste streams.
4. Conserve and restore natural resources.
ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF GREEN BUILDING
1. Reduce operating costs.
2. Improve occupant productivity.
3. Enhance asset value and profits.
4. Optimize life-cycle economic performance.
SOCIAL BENEFITS OF GREEN BUILDING
1. Enhance occupant health and comfort.
2. Improve indoor air quality.
3. Minimize strain on local utility infrastructure.
4. Improve overall quality of life.
THE NEED FOR GREEN BUILDINGS IN INDIA
Are you aware that your office or residential building could be harming the environment? Is it possible that your building is spewing harmful pollutants without you realizing it? We are well aware about various environmental issues such as global warming, water, and air pollution and the measures that need to be taken to prevent them. If we switch to sustainable architecture and green buildings in India, not just for nature’s sake, but for ourselves, we could not only save the environment but also reduce our total ownership costs.
The building construction industry produces the second-largest amount of demolition waste and greenhouse
gases (35-40%). The major consumption of energy in buildings is during construction and later in lighting or air
conditioning systems. White, various amenities like lighting, air conditioning, water heating provide comfort to building occupants, but also consume an enormous amount of energy and add to pollution. Further, occupant activities generate a large amount of solid and water as well.
Sustainable architecture is the type of architecture that seeks to minimize the harmful impact that buildings have on the environment. Such sustainable built green buildings are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient, right from location selection to the demolition after its life cycle ends. A green building uses less energy, water, and other natural resources creates less water and greenhouse gases, and is healthy for people living or working inside as compared to a regular structure.
Building green is not about a little more efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize the use of local
materials, local ecology, and most importantly they are built to reduce power, water, and material requirements. Thus if these things are kept in mind, then we will realize that our traditional architecture was in fact, very green. According to TERI estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550000home a year.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF GREEN BUILDING
These are five fundamental principles of green building
1. Sustainable site design.
2. Water quality and conservation.
3. Energy and environment.
4. Indoor environmental quality.
5. Materials and resources.
SUSTAINABLE SITE DESIGN
1. Create minimum urban sprawl and prevent the needless destruction of valuable land, habitat, and open space.
2. Encourage higher-density urban development as a means to preserve valuable green space.
3. Preserve key environmental assets through careful examination of each site.
WATER QUALITY AND CONSERVATION
1. Preserve the existing natural water cycle and design the site so that they closely emulate the site’s natural hydrological systems.
2. Emphasis on retention of stormwater and on-site infiltration as well as groundwater recharging.
3 Minimize the inefficient use of potable water on the site while maximizing the recycling and reuse -water, including rainwater harvesting, stormwater.
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
1. Minimize adverse impact on the environment through optimized building siting and design, material selection, and aggressive use of energy conservation measures.
2. Maximize the use of renewable energy and other low-impact energy sources.
3. Building performance should exceed the minimum International Energy Code (IEC) compliance level by 30-40%.
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
1. Provide a healthy, comfortable, and productive indoor environment for building occupants. careful
2. Utilize the best possible conditions in terms of indoor air quality, ventilation and thermal comfort, access t
natural ventilation and daylighting.
MATERIALS AND RESOURCES
1. Minimize the use of non-renewable construction materials through efficient engineering and construction
and effective recycling of construction debris.
2. Maximize the use of recycled materials, modern energy-efficient engineered materials, and resource-efficient composite type structural systems as well. sustainably managed, biomass materials.
Sufficient technical background and an understanding of green building practices are needed for implementing these fundamental principles so that a building can be considered a truly “Green Building”.
ADVANTAGES OF GREEN BUILDING
There are eight advantages of green building.
1. Low maintenance and operation cost.
2. Energy efficiency.
3. Enhances indoor environment quality.
4. Water efficiency.
5. Better health.
6. Material efficiency.
7. Better environment.
8. Reduces strain on local resources.
LOW MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION COST
Green Buildings incorporated unique construction features that ensure efficient use of resources such as water and energy. For example, by using a task lighting strategy and a lot of daylight, green buildings vastly reduce the amount of power used in lighting systems. This allows users to save as much as their water and energy bills.
Given that operating and maintenance costs can account for as much as 80% of the lifetime costs of building, reducing such costs significantly increases the earnings of building owners who collect rent from their buildings. Even though constructing a green building may be slightly more expensive than their non-green counterparts, the reduced operation and maintenance costs of green buildings make them much cheaper in the long term.
Designers of Green Buildings try as much as possible to reduce dependency on energy from a non-renewable sources such as coal. To this end, they install solar panels to make make use of energy from the sun, and design windows in a way that allows as much natural light as possible and, therefore, reduces the use of artificial light; these and other methods ensure that the building uses energy in an efficient manner.
Energy efficiency is essential not only for the user but also for the entire world because non-renewable energy sources are expensive and pollute the environment.
ENHANCES INDOOR ENVIRONMENT QUALITY
Indoor environment quality depends on conditions inside a building and how they affect the occupants of the building. These conditions include lighting, ergonomics, thermal conditions, and air quality. Good indoor environment quality is one protects the health of the building’s occupants, reduces stress, and improves their quality of life.
Green buildings achieve this through the installation of operable windows that allow in as much sunlight as possible and reducing the use of materials that may emit elements that are dangerous to the health.
Water efficiency involves using water resources in a manner that saves water and ensures that today and future generations enjoy a reliable supply of clean water. Green building allows for the use of alternative sources of water such as rainwater, reducing water waste through the installation of plumbing fixtures that are efficient, and reducing the strain on shared water resources by installing systems that purity water and enable recycling.
People who live in Green Buildings enjoy many health benefits because of the safety of materials used in the
construction of such buildings. For instance, eco-friendly construction companies in Pune avoid using plastic by-products that have been found to release toxic materials. Toxic substances like carcinogens not only cause significant breathing difficulties but also increase the chances of getting cancer.
Material efficiency involves the use of physical processes and materials in a manner that allows for the minimum use of materials without compromising the quality of the outcome, also the processes should generate as little waste as possible. To achieve material efficiency, green building companies use materials that are long-lasting, recycle and reuse some
products, design buildings in a manner that allows for use of fewer materials, and employ processes that use water, raw materials, and energy. All these help achieve material efficiency.
By reducing the usage of energy sources that pollute the environment such as coal, green buildings contribute to keeping the environment clean.
In addition, by reducing the level of carbon (IV) oxide. emitted to the atmosphere, they help to lessen the pace e
REDUCES STRAIN ON LOCAL RESOURCES
As the population increases, local shared resources such as water and energy come under considerable pressure. Through the use of technologies and processes that increase water and energy efficiency, green buildings can reduce this strain
INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORKS AND ASSESSMENT TOOLS
IPCC FOURTH ASSESSMENT REPORT
Climate change 2007, the fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of such reports. The IPCC was established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess scientific, technical, and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
UNEP AND CLIMATE CHANGE
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) works to facilitate the transition to low-carbon societies, support
climate proofing efforts, improve understanding of climate change science and raise public awareness about this global challenge.
The Greenhouse Gas Indicator: UNEP Guidelines for Calculating Greenhouse Gas Emissions for businesses and
Agenda 21 is a program run by the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development. It is a comprehensive blueprint of action to be taken globally, nationally, and locally by organizations of the UN, governments, and major groups in every area in which humans impact the environment. The number 21 refers to the 21st Century.
The International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) project sustainability management guidelines were created in order to assist project engineers and other stakeholders in setting sustainable development goals for their projects that are recognized and accepted as being in the interests of society as a whole,.
The process is also intended to allow the alignment of project goals with local conditions and priorities and to assist those involved in managing projects to measure and verify their progress.
The project sustainability management guidelines are structured with themes and sub-themes under the three main sustainability headings of social environmental and economic. For each individual sub-theme, a core project indicator is defined along with guidance as to the relevance of that issue in the context of an individual project.
The sustainability reporting framework provides guidance for organizations to use as the basis for disclosure about their sustainability performance and also provides stakeholders a universally applicable, comparable framework in which to understand disclosed information.
The reporting framework contains the core product of the sustainability reporting guidelines, as well as protocols and sector supplements. The guidelines are used as the basis for all reporting. They are the foundation upon which all other reporting guidance is based, and outline core content for reporting that is broadly relevant to all organizations regardless of size, sector, or location.
The guidelines contain principles and guidance as well as standard disclosures – including indicators -to outline a disclosure framework that organizations can voluntarily, flexibly, and incrementally, adopt.
Protocols underpin each indicator in the guidelines and include definitions for key terms in the indicator, compilation methodologies, intended scope of the indicator, and other technical references.
Sector supplements respond to the limits of a one size fits all approach. Sector Supplements complement the use of the core Guidelines by capturing the unique set of sustainability issues faced by different sectors such as mining, automotive, banking, public agencies, and others.
IPD ENVIRONMENT CODE
The IPD (Investment Property Data Bank) Environment code was launched in February 2008. The code is intended as a good practice global standard for measuring the environmental performance of corporate buildings. Its aim is accurately to measure and manage the environmental impacts of corporate buildings and enable property executives to generate high-quality, comparable performance information about their buildings anywhere in the world. The code covers a wide range of building types (from offices to airports) and aims to inform and support the following:
1. Creating an environmental strategy.
2. Inputting to real estate strategy.
3. Communicating a commitment to environmental improvement.
4. Creating performance targets.
5. Environmental improvement plans.
6. Performance assessment and measurement.
7. Life cycle assessments.
8. Acquisition and disposal of buildings.
9. Supplier management.
10. Information systems and data population.
11. Compliance with regulations.
12. Team and personal objectives.
IPD estimate that it will take approximately three years to gather significant data to develop a robust set of baseline data that could be used across a typical corporate estate.
ISO 21931 : 2006: Sustainability in building construction framework for a method of assessment for environmental
performance of construction works.
Part1:Buildings is intended to provide a general framework for improving the quality and comparability of methods of assessing the environmental performance of buildings. It identifies and describes issues to be taken into account when methods for the assessment of environmental performance for new or existing building properties in the design, construction, operation, refurbishment and deconstruction stages.
It is not an assessment system in itself but is intended to be used in conjunction with, and following the principles set out in the ISO 14000 series of standards.
WHAT IS GREEN BUILDING CERTIFICATION AND WHY IS IT REQUIRED?
Whether Green Buildings are really green is to be decided against the predefined rating systems. There are three primary Rating systems in India.
GREEN RATING FOR INTEGRATED HABITAT ASSESSMENT (GRIHA)
Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) is India’s own rating system jointly developed by TERI and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India. It is a green building evaluation system where buildings are rated in a three-tier process.
The process initiates with the online submission of documents as per the prescribed criteria followed by an on-site visit and evaluation of the building by a team of professionals and experts from the GRIHA secretariat. GRIHA rating system consists of 34 criteria categorized in four different sections. Some of them are:
1. Site selection and site planning.
2. Conservation and efficient utilization of resources.
3. Building operation and maintenance.
(a) Commonwealth Games Village, New Delhi.
(b) Fortis Hospital, New Delhi.
(c) CBSE (Center for Environmental Science & Engineering) building.
(d) IIT Kanpur.
(e) Suzlon One Earth Pune and many other buildings have received a GRIHA rating.
INDIAN GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL (IGBC)
The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) is the rating system developed for certifying Green Buildings. LEED is developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), the organization promoting sustainability through Green Buildings.
LEED is a framework for assessing building performance against set criteria standard points or references. The benchmarks for the LEED Green Building Rating System were developed in the year 2000 and are currently available for new and existing constructions.
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) formed the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) in the year 2001. IGBC is a non-profit research institution having its offices in CII- Sohrabji Green Business Centre which is itself a LEED-certified Green Building.
Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has licensed the LEED Green Building standard from the USGBC. IGBC facilities Indian green structures to become one of the Green Buildings.
IGBC has developed the following green building rating systems for different types of building in line and conformity with the US Green Building Council. Till date, the following Green Building rating systems are available under IGBC :
1. LEED India for new construction.
2. LEED India for core and shell.
3. IGBC Green Homes.
4. IGBC Green Factory Building.
5. IGBC Green SEZ.
6. IGBC Green Townships.
Some examples of LEED-rated buildings in India.
BUREAU OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY (BEE)
BEE developed its own rating system for the buildings based on a 1 to 5-star scale. More stars mean more energy efficiency. BEE has developed in Energy Performance Index (EPI). The unit of kilowatt-hours per square meter per year is considered for rating the building and especially targets air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned office buildings.
The Reserve Bank of India’s buildings in Delhi and Bhubaneshwar, the CII Soharji Godrej Green Business Centre, and may other buildings have received BEE 5 Star ratings. Indians were aware of Green Building Concepts from the beginning. Conventional homes with baked red color roof tiles and clay-made walls are a really good example of energy-efficient structures that are used to keep cool during summer and warm during the winters.
Most of rural India is still attached to this building technology with naturally available materials like clay, wood, jute ropes, etc. Today we have advanced technologies that create smarter systems to control the inside temperature, lighting system, power and water supply, and waste generation. Green buildings might be a bit heavy on the purse but are good for the environment.
In this rapidly changing world, we should adopt the technology that helps us to save precious natural resources. This would lead us to truly sustainable development.
CODE FOR GREEN BUILDINGS: NEED OF THE HOUR
Are architects in India failing to realize the importance of substantiable construction and green buildings, in the
absence of a comprehensive code? Can future generations of architects be able to meet the standards of Green Buildings in a cost-effective manner?
Being one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, the demand for construction and infrastructural development in India is also growing. In such a scenario, even though the importance of Green Buildings has been fairly well understood, it is unfortunate that the country does not have a comprehensive Green Building Code From merely 20000 square feet of Green Buildings in 2003, the country now has over 20 million square feet of Green Buildings. If there had been a code applied, the figure could definitely have been a lot more impressive.
GREEN BUILDING CODE IN INDIA
In India, the Green Building Code is a medley of codes and standards contained in the state-by-laws, the National Building Code, the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) and in the norms set by the rating programs, such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design- India (LEED-India), the standards and guidelines put down for the Residential Sector by the Indian Green Building Council
(IGBC), TERI-GRIHA and other such certifications.
Basic and general guidelines for efficient energy usage in the National Building Code 2016 (NBC) do exist but they are nearly guidelines.
These efficient energy usage guidelines made an appearance after 18 years during and amendment of the NBC in 2005.
It is urgent and imperative that not only should we adopt policies requiring all existing buildings as well as new construction to meet green building criteria, but also put in place relevant laws and regulations for effective implementation of these policies. Honest implementation of laws is the need of the day.
These laws should after incentives to commercial builders in the form of tax benefits and quick permits. Penalties should also be imposed wherever required.
Green building laws and codes in our country are voluntary. Till date, India does not have an effective and comprehensive Green Building Code. The United States Green Building Council established LEED, which stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design.
Today LEED is an internationally recognized green building certification system, which provides third-party verification for a building or community designed and built using strategies intended to improve performance in metrics, such as energy-saving, water efficiency, reduced CO, emissions, improved indoor environmental quality, stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts.
The green indicators of LEED have been adopted by as many as 57 Countries, and are considered benchmarks. The LEED benchmark has been recognized and accepted by most developers, builders, architects, and users for constructing core or shell buildings as well as for furnishing buildings in India.
LEED India sets down standards that have been customized according to Indian conditions, in terms of the design, construction, and operation of buildings for environment-friendly performance. Its rating system is amended regularly to address not only the Indian environmental and climatic conditions but also the sustainability issues of buildings, site development, water resource utilization, energy, natural selection, and indoor environment are the key areas focussed upon while amending the system.
The Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) is attempting to indigenize LEED according to the environmental conditions prevalent in India. The IGBC Green Homes rating is said to be the first rating program created exclusively for Indian homes by the council. It defines green buildings as buildings that use less water, optimizes energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generate less waste, and provide healthier spaces for occupants, as compared to conventional buildings.
Presently, LEED India and IGBC after certifications in two categories :
1. The builder or the construction company developing a particular green site/ building for a client, which will be leased out.
2. Those who are undertaking a green initiative for their own personal use, and this could either be a commercial
space or corporate office.
Standard varies from both categories. While the first category is designed as an enveloping structure, the second category focuses on the design concepts from within.
The Indian Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air conditioning Engineers (ISHRAE), established 30 years ago
on the lines of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning offers guidance in the art and science of ventilation, heating, refrigeration, and air conditioning.
It has joined hands with IGBC to act as a guide for energy-efficient air-conditioning.
GRIHA, an acronym for Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment, is now the National Rating System of India. Conceived by TERI (The Energy of Resources Institute), and developed jointly with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, GRIHA is a green building design evaluation system. It provides basic prerequisites for green buildings in terms of the following :
1. Climate-based layouts and designs to minimize energy consumption.
2. Wastewater treatment and recycling with zero external discharge.
3. Use of fly ash blocks for walls and slabs to maximize the use of recycled material.
4. Maximum use to natural lighting and optimum indoor air quality.
Apart from the two agencies just mentioned, India also has few environment-conscious firms which demand extremely strict green design. Still, there are a large number of developers, architects, and designers who have not yet realized the importance of sustainable construction and green buildings. They are victims of the misconception that green buildings are more expensive and require complete air conditioning.
The truth is just the opposite. It is an established fact that the percentage of additional expenditure (after initial investment) required in green buildings is very small. However, the long-term cost-saving offered is quite significant. Also the payback period of this additional investment in merely two to three years.
There is abundant daylight which it unnecessary to switch on artificial lights in the entire building, throughout the day. The Integrated Energy Policy (IEP) brought out in 2006, is designed to address the issues of climate change and sustainable development is being implemented by the government for such buildings.
There is no dearth of environment-friendly construction techniques in the architectural heritage of our country. The intellect and foresight exhibited in heritages building should be combined with modern-day resources, designs, and materials. New construction guidelines should offer alternatives that help develop a green character in buildings in harmony with the new and existing practices. What is required is a framework, around which a design can be woven, with creativity.
The initiatives discussed encompass three principles of environmental law.
1. Polluter pays principle.
2. Principle of precaution.
3. Principle of intergenerational equity.
The outcome of all three principles in the green effect of urban development should be incorporated in a comprehensive mandatory code of practices. Following this code should be made mandatory for the construction of green buildings. A competent authority should ensure its effective implementation.
The Rio + 20 United Nations conference of Sustainable Development was held in 2012. One of the main topics of discussion, as always, was the balancing of economic opportunities with the principles of sustainable growth. In developing countries like India where there are significant poverty and economic deprivation, green issues have to take into account the larger issues of economic development and growth.
Any mandatory green building code has to be implemented taking into account these matters. To sum up, the ĝreen building culture needs to spread and spread fast.
This requires a mandatory code in the form of building by-laws to guide architects and developers of the present and future generations. Merely introducing laws and codes will not suffice. There is also a need for a proper enforcing authority to check building construction if Euroa development has to meet the core environmental standards. The challenge for architects would then be to meet the desired standards of green buildings in a cost-effective manner.
DO’S AND DON’TS
DO’S AND DON’TS FOR AN ENERGY EFFICIENT HOME
1. Replace refrigerators made before 1993. Turn off refrigerators you don’t really need.
2. Insulate the attic (ataarce).
3. Block chimney drafts.
4. Change your furnace filter.
5. Get out the caulking gun.
1. Replace computer monitors, newer refrigerators, and similar items hoping to save electricity.
2. Insulate the walls-in most cases.
3. Let your heat go up the chimney opening.
4. Neglect boring maintenance chores.
5. Get new windows unless yours are very old.
DO’S AND DON’TS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
1. Help BRE (Building Research Establishment) achieve its ambitious environmental goals by actively contributing to energy and resource efficiency in all the operations and activities in which you are involved
2. Reduce waste, water, and energy use :
(a) Reduce the use of paper and put waste in the right bins.
(b) Turn off lights when you leave a room.
(c) Use the power saving option on computers.
(d) Make sure your working area is not over/under heated.
(e) Make sure the equipment you use every day is set up and running properly.
(f) Make sure equipment is regularly cleaned and maintained to prevent leaks that often lead to electricity wastage.
3. Respect and contribute positively to local communities.
4. Stop work right away if you believe that what you are
doing may damage the environment.
1. Be wasteful in your work :
(a) Use more office supplies than you really need.
(b) Print documents when it is not essential to do so.
2. Engage in inefficient practices (relating to the use of water, energy, etc.)
(a) Leave taps running or dripping.
(b) Set the heating and cooling system at a temperature that is either too high or too low.
DO’S AND DON’TS FOR EARTH DAY
1. Do check out these 10 ways to Go Green and Save Green.
2. Do grow your own fresh herbs and vegetables. Local Farmer’ markets and local growers are great options as well.
3. Do pledge a simple Act of Green and be entered in the Billion Acts of Green Sweepstakes.
4. Do learn about and implement ways to reduce waste at home. Composting, recycling, and waste reduction can go a long way.
5. Do plant a tree or make a small donation to have trees planted in much-needed areas around the world.
6. Do workout smart ways to dramatically reduce your energy costs and usage as the weather gets warmer.
7. Do visit appreciate and come to respect the wonders of our national parks.
8. Do learn about the history of Earth Day and how each person plays a part.
9. Do ride a bike, ride the rail, go for a hike, and then when you are done figure out how you can adjust your “normal transportation habits in favor or a more environmentally-friendly transportation routine.
10. Do learn about why greening schools is so important to our children’s future.
1. Don’t think buying these stamps counts towards the one action you can do to make your life a little more “green
2. Don’t resort to eating canned or heavily processed foods.
3. Don’t paint your house green (unless it’s low VOC paint of course).
4. Don’t throw away your bottles and cans.
5. Don’t just sit under a tree on Earth Day.
6. Don’t think you’re going to make it through the hot month with just a hand-held fan.
7. Don’t load the family up, drive hundreds of miles only to spend the weekend in a hotel. Get outside.
8. Don’t think Earth Day has nothing to do with you.
9. Don’t just step outside and say you went green for Earth Day.
10. Don’t think kids and schools have no place in Earth Day.
RISE OF GREEN CONSTRUCTION IN INDIA
Thanks to increasing awareness in India, people slowly realize the harms of using conventional building materials
and design and choosing to go with sustainable building designs in India.
According to USGBC, there is a dramatic rise in India in the practice of sustainable development in India. The Dodge Data and Analytics “World Green Building Trends Report 2016 “proves that India now stands third in the global listing for the TOP Ten countries for LEED.
The report explains that stricter environmental regulation, client demand, and improving awareness amongst the general population are the main factors for this growth in the construction of sustainable buildings in India. The report shows that there were around 650 green building projects in India, in 2016. A recent survey by the USGBC shows that around 87% of professionals in the green building industry are expecting to see increased use of eco-friendly building construction.
The next several years are being anticipated to show increased LEED-related work in the country.
Note. Some builders have a novel way to attract the client for the apartments they are going to build or already build They give big advertisement in green color showing apartment surrounded by tall green trees. When you go to such a site you will not found the trees of your dream. The other misleading advertisement is that the apartment has a 70% open lush green area. The facts will be known when you calculate the actual open area for one house you will be going to live See the following table.
From the above table it can be seen that in a single story of the apartment of 24 houses for 96 persons the open area is 25200 sq. ft., whereas for a 15 storey apartment of 360 houses for 1440 persons the open area is again same only 25200 sq. ft. Accordingly, if a builder claim that his 15 storey apartment has 70% open area of the covered area then the open area should be 378000 sq. ft and not 25200 sq. ft.
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