FLOORING AND TILES FIXING WORK PROCEDURE – TYPES, CHECKLIST, MATERIAL

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Flooring and tiles fixing work procedure and polishing of floor tiles is a skilled job. Theoretically, tiles gets the least importance, but practically speaking, it is an important activity. 
Good flooring enhances the appearance of a house. A number of leading companies manufacture tiles of different sizes, patterns, and designs. The cost varies as per the quality of the tiles.
FLOORING AND TILES FIXING WORK PROCEDURE
FLOORING AND TILES FIXING WORK PROCEDURE

 

TYPES OF FLOORING TILES WORK

  1. Marble mosaic flooring (grey, white, pink).
  2. Polished stones like Kotah, Shahabad. Tandoor and other natural stones.
  3. Marble and Granite flooring.
  4. Rough Shahabad flooring.
  5. Ceramic tile flooring.
  6. I.P.S. flooring.
  7. Chequered tile flooring.
tools required tiles work
tools required tiles work

TOOLS REQUIRED FOR FLOORING AND TILES FIXING WORK PROCEDURE

  1. Following are the tools required for flooring work
  2. Trowel (thapi), mortar pan (ghamelas), spades (phavdas) etc.
  3. Wooden batten (patti) of 2m (6′.0″) length.
  4. P.V.C. tube level 10m (30′.0″) long and spirit level.
  5. Right angle.
  6. String (line dori).
  7. Wooden mallet.
  8. Wooden float (randha) 1.5m (4′.6″) long.
  9. 200 liters capacity M.S. barrel.
  10. Small chisels/hammer.
  11. Farma (template) for dressing work
  12. Wooden farma (template) for skirting reference.
  13. Tile cutting machine.
  14. Equipment for cutting glazed tiles.
  15. Polishing machine.
  16. Polishing stones of appropriate numbers.

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION & IT’S CHECKING -FLOORING AND TILES FIXING 

 

1. MOSAIC TILES

Following are the checks to be carried out after receiving mosaic tiles on site.

  1. Ensure that the tiles and skirting are of the same lot. This can be checked by the color stripes marked on one side of the tiles and skirtings. 
  2. Stack the tiles lot-wise. 
  3. Ensure that the corners of the mosaic tiles and skirting are sharp and unbroken. The percentage of the broken edge tiles should not exceed 3%. Tiles should be rejected if this percentage is more.
  4. Check the diagonals and the size of the tile. No variation in tile size is allowed.
  5. Check the tiles for straightness. Corners of the tiles should not be bent.
  6. Hand polish a mosaic tile and skirting, from the received lot, with the help of a polish stone or brickbat. Ensure that they match. Also, see that the chips are neatly and evenly distributed. Submit these sample tiles to the Head Office with the quality report.
  7. Send 6 nos. of tiles, from each lot of 20.000 tiles to the material testing laboratory for testing. Submit this report to the Head Office. Generally, abrasion tests, absorption tests, and average transverse tests are carried out in the laboratory.
right angle ties checking
right angle ties checking

2. CUDDAPPA STONE
  1. Check the edges of the cuddappa stone. They should not be broken during transportation. Damaged the stone should be replaced by the supplier.Check the thickness of the cuddappa stone.
  2. Thickness ranging from 25 to 40mm (1″ to 1″) is acceptable.Check the size of the cuddappa stone.
  3. It should be as per the required size. Also, check the diagonals of the stone.
  4. Diagonals should be equal.Check for a single polish and double polish (both the faces) of cuddappa stone.

3. MARBLE STONE 
  1. Check the trade name and quality of marble. Ensure that it is as per the indent. e.g., Adanga, Rajnagar white, Makarana Marble, etc.
  2. Check the entire marble lot by striking each piece with a metal piece. It should give a clear ringing sound. Reject any cracked marble pieces.
  3. Check the thickness of the marble. The variation in thickness should not be too large.
  4. Check the size of the marble stones and the diagonals.
  5. Check the edges of the marble. Reject any damaged pieces.
 

4. GLAZED TILES 

  1. Check the quality of the glazed tiles such as 1st, 2nd, etc. It is marked on the glazed tile boxes.
  2. Check the thickness, the brand name, and the size of the glazed tile.
  3. Ensure that the color and the design pattern does not differ in the
  4. same lot.
  5. Check the quantity of tiles by multiplying the number of boxes by the number of tiles in a box, for the exact quantity of the glazed tiles.
 
5. OTHER  TILES
  1. Check the sizes and diagonals of the tiles. They should be as per the requirement.
  2. Check the thickness and edges of the tiles.
  3. Confirm that tiles are free of cracks.
  4. Confirm the quality of the tiles.

PREPARATION FOR MOSAIC TILE FLOORING AND TILES FIXING WORK PROCEDURE


Before executing the 
flooring and tiles fixing work procedure of any flat/, unit, the following preparations and checks should be carried out.

 

1. SURFACE PREPARATION
  1. For flooring and tiles fixing work procedure, the surface should be clean and levelled. There should not be any cement mortar lumps on the slab and corners of the rooms. 
  2. There should be sufficient skirting margin from the surface level. Generally, it should be 23cm (9″) from the slab surface. 
 

2. LIME MORTAR PREPARATION

  1. Lime mortar or bedding mortar under the flooring should be prepared well in advance, before Flooring and tiles fixing work procedure commences.
  2. It is also called the ‘machan’ material.
  3. This mortar is prepared in lime mixer or mortar mill (chuna ghani) .(Refer Figure No. 30.8), in the proportion of 1:3:3, 1 being lime and 3 being sand and shingle respectively.
  4. It should be spread evenly in all the rooms, with reference to thiyyas i.e. level dots.
3. TAKING REFERENCE LEVELS FLOORING
  1. On the main door frame of the flat, mark a fixed-line (e.g., at 60cm from floor level) from the floor and transfer this fixed marking to all other door frames of all the flats on that particular floor of the building. 
  2. Also, transfer this level (Khachara level) on the walls and mark lines on all the walls temporarily with the help of red color (geru or kav).
  3. These lines prove useful for checking the level of tiles work and machan work at all the stages.

4. MACHAN WORK (MORTAR BED)

  1. After taking level markings in all the rooms. proceed for ‘machan work’ i.e. lime mortar bed for flooring tiles. Take ‘thiyyas’, i.e., level dots below every level marking in the corners. 
  2. With the help of these corner thiyyas, take thiyyas in the centre of the room, by holding a line dori diagonally in the room. The center to center spacing between the two thiyyas should not exceed 2.0 m (6′.0″).
  3. Now prepare a uniform layer of lime mortar throughout the flat and allow it to set for at least 12 hours. Ensure that the tiles on this machan are fixed within 3 days, otherwise the machan hardens.
  4. The thickness of the mortar bedding (machan) shall not be less than 12mm (“) nor exceed 40mm (1-“), for ideal tile fixing.
5. MATERIAL SHIFTING TO WORKPLACE
  1. Always stack the required nos. of tiles and skirtings of the same lot in the flat near kitchen otta to avoid confusion during the execution of the Flooring and tiles fixing work procedure.
  2. Do not chisel any columns for skirting work. For columns, use only half thickness skirting tiles that are prepared in the factory by removing a part of the mortar layer of the skirting tile. 
 
6. SETTING OF RIGHT ANGLE TILES
  1. This is the most important part of preparations for flooring and tiles fixing work procedure and requires extreme caution.
  2. First, fix the right angle taking into consideration the longest span of the room, to ensure that there will be the minimum wastage of tile and therefore, minimum cutting work.
  3. Now, fix the string line (Dori) from the right angle corner with one corner reference tile.
  4. If the reference ‘right angle’ string does not match the wall, then try to adjust the difference in skirting.
setting right angle tiles
setting right angle tiles

 

PROCEDURE OF FLOORING AND POLISHING WORK

1. MOSAIC TILE FLOORING AND TILES FIXING WORK PROCEDURE

  1. Prepare the cement slurry in the ratio of 1.5 bag:100 liters of water approx. Start fixing tiles from the reference line and reference tiles diagonally.
  2. Spread’ the cement slurry, of a honey-like consistency, on the mortar bed, over as much area as could be covered with tiles in half an hour.
  3. Match all the four corners of the tiles properly with the help of a wooden mallet.
  4. Fix the mosaic tiles in a particular sequence, for better results and fine joints.
  5. Except for balconies, bath and toilets complete the flooring of one unit per day, for better bonding and uniform and quality work.
  6. If there are two types of tiles, (e.g., the living room in white and other rooms in grey), break the joint at the shutter groove line/on the inside edge of the masonry in the other room, if a door is not provided.
  7. After completing the tiles work on the floor, check the overall level. Any unevenness can be rectified with a wooden mallet.
  8. The gaps between walls and the floor are fixed with cut-pieces (tukda) of the mosaic tile. These cut pieces must be made with a tile cutting machine (cutter) to avoid wastage of the tiles.
  9. Clean the floor and do not allow anybody to enter the flat for at least 24 hours.
  10. The next day fill the gap-filling/joint between the tiles with cement slurry. Ensure that the slurry is properly mixed with water to get a homogeneous mixture. 
  11. Then cure this flooring and skirting for a minimum of 14 days.
  1. checking mortar bedding tiles work
    checking mortar bedding tiles work

 

2. MOSAIC SKIRTING FIXING WITH 8mm WOODEN FARMA (TEMPLATE)
 
After mosaic tile joint filling, start fixing the skirting work. Following is the sequence to be observed- 
  1. Wooden farma as shown in Figure No. 30.15 should be prepared out of wooden batten (patti). With the help of this wooden farma, skirting tile is fixed projecting only 8mm from the wall plaster.
  2. Fix skirting tiles at two ends of the wall with farma, projecting only 8mm outside the wall plaster. This is easy as 9″ plaster from the bottom is not done. Masonry of the Perni layer is done as described.
  3. Then, between the skirting tiles are fixed with the help of a wooden farma.
  4. All the skirting tiles should project only 8mm from the wall plaster. Keep the skirting in one line. 
  5. The plaster of the long walls may differ slightly in line. Hence, fix skirting at two corners and fix the line, Dori, as a guideline for a line of the in-between skirting.
  6. At the column positions, skirting needs to be cut/sliced in a vertical direction. This keeps the 8mm projections from the wall plaster constant. 
  7. For skirting of internal walls, a clear margin on both sides is got to accommodate the skirting, as perani block of a smaller size is used. 
  8. For skirting of the outer wall pieces of the skirting should be adjusted in the corners where furniture work is expected.
  9. Curing of flooring and skirting is done for a minimum of 14 days.
  10. Ensure that the skirting lines are perpendicular to the mosaic tile line.
wooden farma template for skirting
wooden farma template for skirting

 

POLISHING OF MOSAIC TILE FLOORING AND SKIRTING
  1. This is the most important work as the final appearance of the flat unit depends on the quality of the polishing work. The following are the steps to be followed during polishing.
  2. 1st coat with 60 No. stone. This is the basic coat which takes the maximum time. 
  3. During this coat, the flooring is considerably leveled. Water is used as a lubricant between the flooring and revolving stones fixed to the machine.
  4. The 2nd coat is the grouting coat which involves grouting of the cement slurry (grey/white as per the colour of tiles) on the flooring. Grouting is done to fill up the open joints and undulations, that occur during the coat. curing of the grouting is done for at least 3 days.
  5. The 3rd coat is done with 120 No. stone. These stones are finer than the 60 No. stone. This coat serves the same purpose as the 1st coat.
  6. The 4th coat is done with 320 No. or 220 No. stone and the 5th coat is done with 600 No. stone to achieve a smooth polish.
  7. The 6th coat is done with Oxalic acid in powder form and ‘Namada’ (white flat brush).
  8. After six coats, the flat should be washed with water and all the doors and windows closed, to prevent any dust from settling on the floor.
  9. Polishing of the skirting tiles should be done manually, while polishing of the floors is being done, with the same stones. The skirting will otherwise look dull compared to the flooring. For a better finish, use Khara (600 No. stone) and Chikna (300 No. or 600 No.) stone. floor.
FLOORING IN BALCONIES
  1. Give a proper slope, to allow the water to flow through the spout, during the flooring and tiles fixing work procedurefor balconies. For this 25mm (1″) slope towards the spout is enough.
  2. Fix the spout 25cm (10″) away from the sidewall, considering one tile distance, to prevent the water from stacking inside the balcony area.
  3. Confirm from the working drawings whether the drop in tile levels of the balcony is there or not there. Accordingly, proceed further.
slope in balcony flooring
slope in balcony flooring

 

STANDARD OUTPUT OF WORK
 
Labour required 2 masons + 2 M.C. + 6 F.C, can complete approximately 75 sq.m. (800 s.ft.) work per day.


PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN FOR MOSAIC FLOORING AND SKIRTING FIXING

  1. At the site, cutting should be allowed by machine only.
  2. Mixing of lime should be done properly while preparing the ‘machan’.
  3. Wastage of tiles should not exceed 3 %. Collect the wasted tiles in empty cement bags and stack them separately. They can be used for landings, parking, etc.
  4. Insist on separate D.P. switch for each polishing machine. Never allow direct connection from the main switch.
  5. Check the polishing machine thoroughly. If the stones slip due to loose fixing, then the machine scratch and damage the 00 rotating flooring surface.
  6. The sequence of polishing should be strictly observed.
  7. Broken tiles should be removed and replaced immediately, with due care, to avoid damages to the adjacent tiles. 
  8. Hand polishing at the corners and for skirting should match the machine-polished floor surface.
  9. The sequence of other works should be arranged so that after the final the polishing coat is complete, the final painting work can be done. After cleaning the stains of paint, lock the unit. No other works e.g., plumbing, fixing of W.C. pan, W.H. basins, kitchen otta fixing etc. should be done.

3. MARBLE FLOORING

  1. The procedure of marble flooring fixing is almost the same as the mosaic tile fixing except for machan work.
  2. In marble flooring, bedding (machan) is prepared from cement-mortar in the ratio of 1:6 instead of lime mortar. This is because of the variation in the thickness of marble pieces.
  3. The bedding (machan) of cement-mortar should be laid in the required level and marble pieces should be fitted immediately using a thick paste of cement slurry (thicker than what is used for mosaic tile fixing).
  4. Marble flooring can also be fixed in a lime mortar if marble of the same thickness is available.
POLISHING OF MARBLE FLOORING 
  1. For marble, either emery stones or stones specially manufactured for marble polishing work should be used.
  2. After two coats of polishing, marble flooring achieves it’s natural appearance.
  3. In the end, wax should be applied to the entire flooring.

 

4. KOTAH TANDOOR POLISHED SHAHABAD STONE FLOORING
 
Kotah stone flooring is widely used in offices, commercial buildings and even in large living rooms of bungalows and flats, while tandoor and polished Shahabad stone flooring is generally used for toilets and medium budget flats.
SELECTION OF MATERIAL 
  1. The following criteria should be considered before selecting the stone tiles.
  2. Ensure that the stone tiles do not have any cracks. Strike the stone tile with a metal piece. The clear ringing sound indicates that there are no cracks in the tile. Reject any cracked stone pieces.
  3. Ensure that the stone tiles have an intact structure. Reject any tiles with loose layers.
  4. Color variation is common. As far as possible, select one color material and avoid mixing light and dark-colored tiles.
  5. Apart from these criteria, differences are observed in Kotah, Tandoor and polished Shahabad.
  6. As there is very little difference in the texture of Kotah and Tandoor, the possibilities of mixing are more. Kotah is more expensive than blue Tandoor and polished Shahabad. Hence, precaution should be taken to select the proper material.
replacing broken tiles
replacing broken tiles

 

PROCEDURE OF FIXING KOTAH TANDOOR POLISHED SHAHABAD FLOORING
  1. Before fixing the Kotah or Tandoor stones, they should be chiselled in the required shape at the edge using a farma (template).
  2. The procedure of fixing is the same as that of marble.
  3. The sides of the stones are dressed (chiselled) and moulded for minimum joints and maintaining a proper level, where a number of tiles are joined together.
  4. Joints between the stones are filled with grey cement the next day. Joint should not exceed 1.5mm.
  5. The pattern of the flooring can be adjusted in a break joint manner or in continuous joints.
  6. Curing of the flooring is done for at least 14 days, by sprinkling water on the floor at least 4 times a day.
POLISHING OF THE KOTAH TANDOOR FLOORING 
  1. Polishing of the Kotah and Tandoor flooring should be done very carefully.
  2. If improper stones are used for polishing, the flooring can get scratched. To avoid, polishing should be done with emery stones only.
  3. The sides of the flooring immediately near the skirting should be hand-polished with emery stone, along with skirting.
  4. For a mirror finish polishing, apply a mixture of 50% wax polish, 25% coconut oil + 25% kerosene to the stone flooring with a white flat brush (namada). Then clear this layer using Deodar sawdust.

 5. STAIRCASE FLOORING 

The following points should be observed during staircase flooring. 
  1. The landing should be kept 12mm (1/2″) below F.F.L. of each floor.
  2. Treads should be fixed with 12 mm (1/2″) bearing in the staircase plaster.
  3. Treads should be fixed equally in horizontal distance between two landings.
  4. Individual-level of the tread should be maintained.
  5. Nosing should be kept to treads with rounding.
  6. Risers should be fixed according to the required size, after considering the total landing to landing height, divided by the number of risers.
  7. Risers should be fixed truly vertical.
  8. Risers and treads should be polished with emery stone only.
6. CHEQUERED TILE FLOORING

Preparation for chequered flooring tile fixing and details are the same as that of marble mosaic tile flooring. But the joints of chequered tiles should be filled with matching color cement slurry. Also, a sufficient slope should be provided for easy drainage of water in the tiled area. These tiles are available in various colors.
 
7. OTHER TYPES OF FLOORING

Apart from these, the other floorings, used widely in buildings are discussed below in detail.


(a) CRAZY MOSAIC FLOORING

It is generally used for staircase for common areas. The advantage of this type. of flooring is that all wastage of mosaic tile pieces can be utilized.
 
PROCEDURE FOR FIXING CRAZY (TUKDA) MOSAIC FLOORING
  1. Machan is done with cement-sand-mortąr 1:6 and over this irregular shape, mosaic tile pieces are fixed in a haphazard manner. Ensure that the peripheral line is straight, for a better appearance.
  2. The joints between the pieces are filled with rich cement mortar and then cured for 14 days.
  3. On staircase landings with a different stone border, this type of flooring looks nice. Procedure for polishing this type of flooring is the same as that of mosaic tile flooring and tiles fixing work procedure.

Floor Tile Installation Process – 60×60 cm polished tiles – building technology

(b) ROUGH SHAHABAD FLOORING

It is normally used in parking areas, open space, and garden walkways.
 
PROCEDURE FOR FIXING ROUGH SHAHABAD
  1. Machan work is done with lime mortar in the required slope.
  2. The next day, 60cm x 60cm (2′.0″ x 2′.0″) size rough Shahabad stones are fixed over this machan , in level. The joint width between two adjacent stones is kept up to 12mm, (“), as stones are not exactly in size, and edges can be irregular.
  3. Rough Shahabad stones are arranged so that the joints between the stones achieve an exact straight line over a longer area.
  4. The joints are filled with 1:1 cement-sand- mortar and the line dori impression is kept on the joints for a better appearance.
  5. The joints are cured for at least 14 days to prevent cracking.
(c) I.P.S. FLOORING (INDIAN PATENT STONE)

It is generally used for unimportant areas such as stores, servant’s quarters, outhouses, garages, ducts, etc.


PROCEDURE OF WORK FOR I.P.S.
  • The surface on which I.P.S. is to be done should be cleaned.
  • All the level lines should be marked on door frames and walls.
  • Thiyyas are made on the floor with the help of cement-concrete 1:2:4 at, every 6′.0″ (2m) interval.
detail staircase flooring work
detail staircase flooring work

 

  • These levels should be checked by the site engineer for clearance for further work.
  • Machan of cement-concrete, of proportion 1:2:4, is laid throughout the room and then immediately, cement paste of thickness 2 to 3 mm approx. is applied over this machan, to form a uniform layer of cement. The thickness of I.P.S. flooring should not exceed 50mm (2″) and the maximum size of metal (aggregates) shall be 12mm (“) in machan concrete.
  • This work is done by a skilled mason with a metal float. After finishing, square checks are made on the surface with a line Dori. These squarechecks are normally of size 30cm x 30cm (12″ x 12″).
  • The flooring is then allowed to cure for at least 15 days.

PREPARATION & PROCEDURE OF CLADDING DADO WORK

1. GLAZED TILE DADO PREPARATION OF SURFACE 
  1. The vertical surface for cladding work should be rough, fairly in plumb and in right angles with each other in case of toilet walls.
  2. Concealed plumbing and electric conduiting should be complete before the execution of cladding work.
  3. Check all the right angles of the corners of bath/W.C., toilet, and kitchen otta area. Also, ensure that the plaster is in plumb. If not,
  4. then get it adjusted by chiseling or plastering the area.
  5. Now the line of base tile should be set.
  6. Set the reference wooden batten (patti) from the nahani trap area by keeping a full tile margin from the bottom.
  7. Check the level of the patti, with a spirit level, before allowing the contractor to do the tiles work.

PROCEDURE FOR DADO WORK
  • First, check the corners with the right angle and the plaster with plumb.
  • Finalize the minimum thickness of thiyya’.
  • With this thickness, first, take the thiyya by fixing a tile on the top of the wall and with the help of this tile and plumb, take the bottom thiyya.
  • Also, take some samples of thiyya on the other corner. 
  • After checking and completion of the thiyya’, the contractor can proceed with the tiles work.
  • Ensure that the tiles are well soaked in water for a minimum of 2 hours. Cover the back of the tiles with cement paste and then press it against the roughened wall surface. Tap gently against the wall with a mallet.
thiyya dado work
thiyya dado work

 

  • Always take full tile line (vertical) in one side, to avoid wastage. In W.C., take it on the opening side of the door (Refer Figure 30.33) for dado and floor. For dado, it is advisable to do tiles up to a height of 1m every day, and the next day, cement slurry should be filled through the top, for better bonding and void filling.
  • After fixing the tiles, ask the mason to fill the gap on the top side of the tile with cement paste. Press the cement paste manually, so that it is filled properly. It may otherwise sound hollow from the corners. Hollow sound in tiles shows bad workmanship.
  • Always match the lines of the tiles vertically and horizontally and check if any corner juts out of the line Dori. If it does, adjust it with the help of a wooden mallet.
  • In case of a window portion, if the sill is not provided on the bottom side, ensure that the tiles Hasan equal slope and overlaps on the vertical tile. 
  • Overlapping is important as it prevents water from entering through the gap, causing leakage.
  • The joints between two tiles should be kept a minimum. Clean these joints, remove the excess cement from joints and refill these joints with white cement.
  • Curing should be done for a period of 14 days, 6 times a day.
2. MARBLE GRANITE TILE DADO
 
Some high-rise, commercial buildings, make extensive use of marble and granite tile. Such tile dados are some times fixed to the exterior faces of the buildings and are directly exposed to severe weather conditions.
 
While fixing such dados the following procedure should be adopted.
  1. After a certain height, space should be provided for expansion and contraction of the tiles. Without it, the dado might come out from its original position, due to alternate expansion and contraction.
  2. A special type of non-corrosive clamping system (e.g. brass clamps) should be provided in the dado and the parent wall for rigid fixity in case of high rise dados.
  3. The other procedures for fixing the dado is the same as that of normal glazed tile dados.

PROCEDURE FOR KITCHEN OTTA WORK

1. FOR CUDDAPPA KITCHEN OTTA
  • Ensure that the position of the kitchen, otta is as per the drawings and also confirm any extra amenities e.g., L’ shape otta and it’s the position.
  • Kitchen otta work should start after completion of the mosaic tile fixing.
  • Polishing of mosaic tiles below the kitchen otta should be done before starting kitchen otta work because afterward polishing with the machine is not possible and the quality of hand polishing will not match the room polish.
  • Mark position of the sink and ‘L’ shape, on the wall with chalk.
  • Tiles mason will take the levels of the sink bottom, top, shelf, and verticals. Check these according to the drawings. Check the height required. Allow him to chasing required grooves on the wall.
  • Fix all vertical pieces with the shelf and sink bottom piece. Check the plumb of all verticals and the level of sink and shelf.
  • Conventionally, a cuddappa kitchen otta is erected by making full length 12mm deep grooves to vertical pieces, to accommodate and support horizontal pieces.
kitchen otta sink details

 

  • In modern techniques, fixing of the shelf and sink bottom is done on the hard metal round piece (like one rupee coin) or clip fixed horizontally in vertical piece by making half groove and fixing with adhesive epoxy (such as Araldite).
  • Ensure proper fixing of the clip.
  • Fill all joints with cement and clean the surface.
  • The next day, allow the plumber to fix nahani trap in the sink with slope and ensure that it is in the center, after the complete finishing of the sink.
  • Nahani Trap outlets of all the floors should be vertically in a plumb line from outside. 
  • Seal the hole in the wall around the nahani trap with rich cement mortar and concrete.
  • Curing should be done for at least 3 days.
  • Now, start the other works of kitchen otta like fixing top, front facial Patti, sink side, sink bottom finished with cutting in four pieces and sloping towards nahani trap etc.
  • Slope to top of the kitchen otta should be given towards the sink.
  • Front facial patti level should be (6mm) above the top level of the kitchen otta.
  • Dado of the kitchen otta should be done in glazed tile or as per the requirements.
  • Through-hole for gas pipe should be kept in dado tile with 25mm (1″) dia. P.V.C. bend or 25mm (1″) dia. P.V.C flexible pipe and the finishing around it should be done properly.
  • All joints in sink bottom should be sealed by epoxy (such as M-Seal), to avoid leakages. 
  • All edges of cuddappa should be rounded by polishing with emery stone.
  • Clean the kitchen otta properly.
  • Paint the cuddappa with black oil paint except for the top of the kitchen otta and the sink portion.
  • For granite or marble kitchen otta, fix plastic paper or apply a layer of plaster of Paris on the complete kitchen otta till the time of possession, to prevent any damages.

PROCEDURE FOR IMPORTANT TILES WORK

1. WINDOW SILL FIXING
 
Normally, the sill is provided under M.S. Aluminium window for aesthetic reasons. Following is the procedure for fixing window sill.


PREPARATION OF SURFACE FOR WINDOW SILL
 

  • The space under the window bottom from inside is dressed for accommodating the window sill, considering side projection of 20mm (3/4″) on either side.
  • The Cuddappa/Kotah sill is dressed from the front side to face uniform 20mm (3/4 “) thickness all over its length.

PROCEDURE FOR FIXING WINDOW SILL 
  1. The window sill is fixed in line and level for equal projection from all sides.
  2. After fixing, the edges of the sill are rounded with a polishing stone for better appearance.
  3. The cuddappa sill is painted with black oil paint for a better appearance.
2. THRESHOLD (UMBRA PATTI) FIXING
 
Threshold is fixed at the main door of the flat and at the W.C./bath door. It acts as a divider between the flat tiles and staircase and prevents water from spreading in the room flooring and the bath W.C. flooring. Following is the procedure for fixing the threshold.

PROCEDURE FOR FIXING THRESHOLD (UMBRA PATTI)
  1. A threshold (umbra patti) of the exact length between the two legs of the door frame is cut with a tile cutting machine. The width of this patti should be equal to the distance between the shutter and the outer face of the door frame.
  2. It is fixed with cement mortar and at both the ends, the cement slurry is grouted for firm anchorage.
  3. The edges are rounded with a polish stone.
  4. Never fix the umbra patti directly on the finished flooring, as cement and smooth surface do not bond properly. It should be fixed after roughening of surface or application epoxy as Araldite) for bonding and tight fixing.
details of threshold umbra fixing
details of threshold umbra fixing

 

INFORMATION AT A GLANCE FOR FLOORING & DADO WORK

  1. Do not accept any material on the site without checking.
  2. Do not allow the mason to do the machan work without surface preparation.
  3. Do not allow hand mixing of lime mortar, as it leads to poor mixing and more cement consumption.
  4. Do not allow machan work and tile fixing work without marking of level the line on all the walls and thiyyas.
  5. Set the right angle before starting tiles work.
  6. Do not allow anyone to walk over newly fixed floors for at least 24 hours.
  7. Fill the tile joints with cement slurry immediately the next day.
  8. Do not allow skirting fixing without wooden farma (template).
  9. Do not allow any cut-pieces with hand dressing. Insist on cutting the tiles with a cutting machine, since it considerably reduces wastage.
  10. Provide 12mm thick skirting over R.C.C. column for skirting fixing.
  11. Insist on brand new polishing stones for each building.
  12. Strictly follow the polishing procedures.
  13. Use oxalic acid in powder form for the final coat of polishing Do not use liquid acid.
  14. Ensure that the balcony flooring is given sufficient slope towards the balcony spout.
  15. Polish the flooring under the kitchen platform before erecting the kitchen the platform, vertical pieces.
  16. Complete all G.I. plumbing and P.V.C. conduiting work before dado fixing.
  17. Always take full tile on the opening side of the door for W.C. floor.
  18. Carefully seal the gap between C.I. nahani trap and cuddappa piece of the kitchen platform sink.
  19. Check the slopes of bottom cut-pieces of a sink, towards the nahani trap.
  20. Ensure that edges of the kitchen platform and sills are properly rounded.
  21. The procedure of ceramic tile dado work is the same as the glazed tile.
  22. Glazed tile should be cut done with a diamond point cutter and ceramic tile should be cut with hand cutting machine. (ceramic tile cutter)

DETAILS OF CHART FOR UPDATING THE MOSAIC TILES WORK ACTIVITY

  • At the site, when tiles work is in full swing, it is very difficult to check each and every activity.
  • To achieve proper control over this, prepare one register at site as shown in Format No. 30.1. With the help of this register, one can control flooring work very easily.

CHECKLIST FOR TILES WORK

  • Is all the material checked?
  • Is there any defect in tiles/stone received?
  • Are the rooms cleaned before tiles?
  • Is the skirting the gap from floor sufficient?
  • Is the lime mortar fresh & properly mixed in the mixer?
  • Are thiyyas taken before machan work?
  • Is the right angle set before starting tiles?
  • Are level lines marked on all the walls of the flat?
  • Are tile joints filled with matching color cement slurry?
  • Is the skirting farma used for fixing skirting?
  • Are all the cut-pieces made with the help of cutting machine?
  • Is there sufficient stock of 12mm thick skirting for fixing
  • near R.C.C. columns?
  • Are new polishing stones used for polishing?
  • Is proper curing for 3 days done to the grouting coat?
  • Are all polishing coats properly executed?
  • Is oxalic acid in powder form used for the acid wash?
  • Is the balcony flooring gave sufficient slope towards spout?
  • Is the flooring under kitchen platform done before fixing
  • the vertical pieces?
  • Is all the G.I., P.V.C. conducting completed before glazed tile fixing?
  • Is full tile taken on the opening side of the door for W.C. floor?
  • Are all the edges of the kitchen otta & sill rounded?
  • Is the gap between the nahani trap & cuddappa pieces of the sink properly filled?
  • Are the slopes of kitchen platform top & sink proper?
  • Is the W.C./bath floor slope in the proper direction?
  • Is oil paint applied to cuddappa kitchen platform & sills?
  • Are umbra pattis fixed, wherever required?
  • Is the cleaning properly done?
flooring flow chart
flooring flow chart

 

How do I repair floor tiles?

First, remove old tiles from the floor then clean all areas than water spring on areas than tiles sock in water.

Make cement paste apply on tiles put into floor area than curing 24 hours next day spring water up to 7 days.

Also, Read This

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Akshay Kamble
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