GUIDELINE TO START NEW BUILDINGS – LAYOUT, SURVEY, COMPOUND, ELECTRICITY

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This article discusses issues that are important to a building engineer. Initial planning, management, and setting of project is the basis for the successful execution of building construction. The beginning of the job is of utmost importance as compared to the other stages of the work. Once the management decides to guideline to start new buildings. everyone concerned has to put in efforts to set it up.
This article offers guideline to start new buildings in a professional manner to give the right momentum to the work from the word ‘go’.
GUIDELINE TO START NEW BUILDINGS
      GUIDELINE TO START NEW BUILDINGS

 

GUIDELINE TO START NEW BUILDINGS – BASIC REQUIREMENTS 

  • A majority of construction projects are delayed due to excess expenditure than the estimated budget and while lacking in quality.
  • This is due to the lack of planning and faulty execution methods of construction.
  • Therefore, to avoid frequent revisions and rectifications, activities like planning, documentation, verification, and checking must be thoroughly completed during the initial stages of construction, even before construction begins.

The basic steps of this process are

  1. Procurement of drawings prepared by the Consultant architects in pune.
  2. Studying and checking these drawings in detail.
  3. Appointment of the required staff Marking boundaries at the site.
  4. Physical verification of the actual boundaries at the site.
  5. Demarcation and contour survey.-
  6. Water/electricity arrangement in advance.
  7. Approach roads, erection of temporary sheds.
  8. Compound walls and security arrangements.
  9. The stock of materials and tools is required in the initial stages.
  10. Appointing the working agencies.
  11. Completion of all legal formalities.
  12. Bhoomipoojan and advertisement.
  13. The site in charge will manage these activities, having anticipated problems that could crop up after the commencement of the project.

BHOOMIPOOJAN CEREMONY

  1. Indian traditions require that before starting any construction work “BHOOMIPOOJAN” be performed.
  2. Bhoomipoojan can be performed according to the rites specific to one’s culture. The other arrangements depending on the quantum of work for the project.
  3. The site in charge manages this ceremony with help from the site staff.
  4. A few guidelines for arranging this ceremony are given below, as it can influence the invitees/ VIPS positively in becoming future clients.
layout of bhomipoojan ceremony
                    layout of bhomipoojan ceremony

 

The following arrangements should be made in advance.

1. INVITATION CARDS
  1. Invitation cards should be selected, printed, and posted to all the invitees well in advance.
  2. The invitation the card should include the following information 
  3. Name and address of site, date, and time of the program.
  4. Names of the chief guest and other VIPs.
  5. Site location plan with bus routes.
  6. Monogram and the slogan of the company.
2. FOUNDATION STONE
Foundation stone can be constructed with 23cm (9) thick brick masonry as shown in figure No. 4.1. Marble plaque may be fixed as shown. It should include the site name, the chief guest’s name, inauguration date, year, etc.
3. POOJA PLACE
  1. Pooja place can be constructed of size 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 0. 15 m covering with mandap of 3m x 3m and height not less than 2.5m.
  2. Pooja place should be selected in consultation with the priest (purohit). m.
4. MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR THE POOJA
The method of performing the pooja and materials required may vary according to different cultures. However, a detailed list can be obtained from the priest (purohit). A new set of ghamela, phavada, and tikav should also be purchased for the pooja.
5. OTHER ACTIVITIES AND REQUIREMENTS SHOULD BE PLANNED WELL IN ADVANCE
  1. Banners and boards with guiding arrows should be put up.
  2. Mandap (pandal) size and the sitting arrangement should be decided.
  3. Entry and exit pathways to be covered with carpets.
  4. Arrangements for press reporters, photographers, and videographers.
  5. Arrangements for drinking water and refreshments. Erecting a stage with arrangements for speakers and mikes.
  6. Parking arrangements for vehicles.
  7. Lights and fan arrangements, with generators for electricity in case of power failure.
  8. Sales counters with brochures on display boards.
  9. Catering agency along with the contract of breakfast arrangement, water cooler, etc.
6. ARRANGEMENTS TO BE DONE AT THE TIME OF BHOOMIPOOJAN
SECURITY ARRANGEMENT
  1. If any VIP (Minister or Higher Government Officials) is attending the Bhoomipoojan, ensure that the security arrangements are adequate.
  2. Application for security should be submitted to the nearest police station, detailing requirements such as traffic police, police force, Inspector, etc.
  3. In addition, the company’s security force and volunteers from the staff should be issued identity cards to help guide the invitees and control the crowd.
  4. A typical layout is suggested for the Bhoomipoojan ceremony

LIST OF STATIONERY AND MATERIAL REQUIRED TO START A NEW SITE

  1. Even though most of the jobs are given to subcontractors and they arrange for their own material; there are other jobs to be done like departmental work, office work, reporting. checking, entertaining visitors.
  2. For presentation purposes and smooth functioning of the site, certain materials, and stationery are always required.
  3. Standard formats of the stationery are suggested. The use of the same is explained.
  4. A list of the materials required is given below as a guideline to engineers for ready reference.


 House Construction Guidelines Before Start A New House Construction Work

 

1. STATIONERY

  • Ball Pens, lead pencils, sharpeners, erasers.
  • Plastic scales, carbon papers, calculators; gum bottles.
  • Box files, flat files, papers, pads, and folders.
  • Staplers, punching machines, pins, and U- pins.
  • Bulbs, torches, candles, and matchboxes.
  • Steel and cloth measuring tapes (3m, 5m, 30m).
  • Calenders, phone directories.
  • Tea water pots, glasses, plates, tray, flasks, jug.
2. LEDGERS AND REPORT BOOKS
  1. Daily progress, daily labour, daily material consumption/receipt.
  2. Site instruction, visitors report watchman’s report.
  3. Indent book, pending indent, payment challans.
  4. Quality testing, pump cards, machinery log book.
  5. Rough pads, measurement sheets, abstract sheets.
  6. Materials receipt book issue book/transfer Muster register, stock register, consumption register.
  7. Monthly consumption for water meters and electric meters.
  8. Daily diary, material issue slips, voucher books, revenue stamps.
3. OTHER MATERIALS
  • Steel cupboard, tables, chairs, etc.
  • Helmets, safety shoes gloves.
  • Various rubber stamps, stamp pads, project head’s desk plate.
  • Company name board.
  • First aid box – 1 No.
  • Drawing stand, display board.
(4) LIST OF MATERIALS TO BE STOCKED
HARDWARE
  1. Wire nails of various sizes, U nails, plumbing nails.
  2. G.I. pipes of various sizes and G.I. fittings like sockets, reducers, enlargers, elbows, bend tee union plugs, check nuts.
  3. Cotton waste, habak, holdtite, hacksaw blade with frame.
  4. Kathya, rope, line Dori, hose pipes.
  5. Hammer, chisel, tacha, screwdrivers, spanners, adjustable spanners, steel tapes, right angle hold fast, aldrop.
  6. Ghamela, phavada, tikav, dhummas, iron bars, plastic cans, binding.
  7. wire, ladders, picking hammer, drill machine with a drill bit.
  8. Wire mesh, waste oil, scaffolding, wooden bucket, planks, brooms.
PAINTING

Painting, brushes of different sizes, red oxide, primer. turpentine, lime bags, red/ black/ yellow paints, polish papers, scrapper, brooms, coal tar.

ELECTRICAL

 

  1. Wires (1/18, 7/20, 3/20 gauge), flexible wire, bulb holders, adapters, etc.
  2.  Plug pins, plug sockets, switches, bulbs insulation tapes, hand gloves, wireman’s gloves, etc.

 

GENERAL
  1. Acid bottles. bibcock (ordinary), adhesives,
  2. Coal tar, corrugated G.I. sheets, barbed wire, angle, chain ink, etc.
  3. M.S. hinges, wassa, G.I. sheets plain 10/ 20 gauge, sand, metal, murum, stone, rabbit, bricks, block material (grit material), etc.

 

MACHINERIES AND INSTRUMENTS

 

  1. Electric pumps, diesel operating pump, dewatering vibrator, weigh balance, block making machine, block pallets.
  2. Silt measuring flask, cube moulds, slump cone, dumpy level, theodolite.

 

COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS AND DRAWINGS FROM VARIOUS AUTHORITIES

  • Whenever a new project commences, the relevant paper documents for land in possession should be collected from the Head Office.
  • The Project Engineer is responsible for the initial development of the project.
  • He should possess sufficient information about the proposed project. To begin with, he should collect the photostats/Xerox copies of the following documents for the land in question, in order to avoid disputes.
  1. 7/12 extract copy.
  2. Agreement copy between the landlord and the builder.
  3. Demarcation drawing copy from D.L.R.’s (District Land Record) office.
  4. Copy of the notice given by the legal advisor in local newspapers, about the project.
  5. Copy of the power of attorney issued by the owner, if any.
  6. Copy of the layout plan showing boundaries of the plot from the concerned Architect.
  7. Copy of the N.A. Certificate.
  8. These documents prove very useful on the site while commencing the project, to avoid any disputes of land with the adjacent plot holders, government authorities, or even the landowner.
  9. All the drawings of the proposed project should be at the site before starting the work.
  10. The Architect should give all the drawings, including the layout drawings, well before starting the project, excepting any revisions in the drawings.
  11. A list of drawings with the required details is given.
  12. The site engineer should prepare the list of all the drawings required, from time to time.
  13. He should collect the drawings from the concerned Consultant/Architect, duly stamped and signed by the chief engineer or other higher authority, as approval for working at the site.

 

PREPARATION OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITE

1. CLEANING SITE AND LEVELLING

  1. Before starting any work on the site, the land should be cleaned, unwanted trees/bushes should be cut down so that demarcation and layout can be carried out.
  2. If large trees create an obstruction to the proposed buildings or structures, then written permission should be obtained by the corporation authorities for cutting them down.
  3. Any undulations or soil heaps on the premises should be leveled using a tractor.

 

2. BOUNDARIES MARKING

Before the commencing of work on-site, the Project engineer should demand security services.

A small temporary shed using G.I. sheets should be erected at a location nearest to the proposed entrance of the project.

This shed can be used for storing and stacking of all tools required in the initial stages of construction in addition to reports, office files, etc.
layout road structures
layout road structures

Boundary markings should be done by using stones fixed in concrete on every corner/turning point after specific distances.

These stones should be painted with red oil paint.

During this initial marking process, references from the existing boundary stones, trees on boundaries, nalla bunds, initial inquiries with local people, etc. should be taken.

Initial boundary marking on-site helps to judge the reactions of adjacent plot owners.

In case of any minor disputes regarding measurements, efforts should be made to settle them on the site itself if possible, with the consent of the directors.

A rough sketch of the fixed boundaries should be prepared after the above-mentioned confirmation.

It should be checked with the Architect’s layout drawings for any major difference.

If there is no considerable difference, then permanent boundary marking work should start after confirmation from concerned Directors. These boundaries should be marked on the paper by doing the theodolite survey.

3. DEMARCATION BY THEODOLITE SURVEY

 

  1. A theodolite survey for actual demarcation should be done with reference to the existing boundaries.
  2. During this survey, all existing structures such as existing wells bore well, nearby Nalla, electric poles, high tension line, trees, etc. should be shown in the drawing.
  3. The demarcation drawing prepared in the office should be based on the field survey.
  4. Comparisons of all these drawing i.e. D.L.R. s demarcation, Architect’s drawings, and the actual demarcation drawing prepared at the site can be done by superimposing all three drawings.
  5. Any major discrepancies should be reported to H.O. This will facilitate the necessary decision-making for any changes to be incorporated in the initial stages.
  6. Architects should visit the site and inspect the said changes. This will help in finalizing the revised demarcation.
  7. Based on this revised, final demarcated drawing the Architect will prepare the final layout of the buildings & guidelines to start new buildings.

 

4. CONTOUR SURVEY

The detailed procedure of the contour survey is explained.)

  1. Contour survey means surveying the actual level i.e. ups and downs of the plot. This survey should be done by the Dumpy level.
  2. Fix the permanent benchmark with reference to the main road/approach road on the existing main drainage chambers top.
  3. The site engineer has to decide the grid interval at 3 meters, 6 meters as per the plot conditions.
  4. Grid interval depends on the plot conditions i.e. for plain ground, for sloping ground, for steep ground, hilly areas, etc.
  5. The data thus collected i.e. levels and interval distance is used by the site engineer to prepare the contour map.
  6. Importance of contour map
  7. For quantity survey and estimation.
  8. Estimation for cutting and filing.
  9. To decide the height of the compound wall.
  10. Fixing of plinth levels of all buildings, development work like drainage, Nalla, water lines, disposal of rainwater, etc.
  11. For estimation of the whole project

 

5. PLANNING FOR APPROACH ROADS AND TEMPORARY STRUCTURES  WATER STORAGE AND OTHER STRUCTURES
  1. Approach road and internal roads are very important for vehicular transport.
  2. The side boundaries of the approach road should be marked with lime powder and guard stones. The side boundaries of internal roads should be marked with lime powder or steel rods.
  3. Internal road distribution should be as per the sanctioned layout plan.
  4. W.B.M. roads should be constructed well in advance to avoid the possibility of formation and accumulation of mud on the road during monsoons.
  5. This will ensure that the work will progress undisturbed and the material can be stocked easily.
  6. Hoardings, guiding boards with arrow signs, and tree guards with plants should be provided on the approach road as well as on the main road.
  7. Planning of the approach road and other structures should be done in advance as per the sanctioned buildings layout so that no structure road should obstruct the proposed buildings & guidelines to start new buildings.
  8. Material stacking space for each building should be planned with free vehicular movement and without obstructing any temporary structures.
  9. This will help avoid frequent shifting of temporary sheds to accommodate the proposed permanent structures, leading to a considerable increase in cost due to a lack of advance planning.

 

6. WATCHMAN’S CABIN

It should be located nearest to the main gate, facing the road/ direction from where the maximum vehicular flow in the project area is expected.

WATCHMAN'S CABIN
   WATCHMAN’S CABIN


7. SITE OFFICE STORE

A temporary office/store at the site should not be demolished till the completion of the project.
8. WATER ARRANGEMENT
  1. Water arrangement is an important aspect of the construction field.
  2. In case of a lack of sufficient water from corporations/other authorities/open well, drilling a bore well is advisable.
  3. Scarcity or non-availability of water will require approaching the tropical geological survey to find out the maximum groundwater table for drilling a bore well.
  4. The number of bore wells depends on the requirement of water for the completion of the project.
  5. Pump installation should be completed with a temporary G.I/P.V.C. line laid up to the central water storage tank once the bore well is complete.
  6. The Engineer should know of the requirements of the pump as it depends on the horizontal-vertical growth of the project.
  7. An extra pump should be installed over the temporary water storage tank, for water needed for construction curing purposes.
  8. The selection of pump capacity should be done with possible shifting to other construction activities in the project in mind.
  9. A minimum of one water outlet with a gate valve should be provided in front of each building, as a temporary water arrangement for curing/construction activity.

 

9. ELECTRICITY ARRANGEMENT
  • Electricity arrangement is another basic to a new site.
  • For this, normally a three-phase meter is required to operate pumps, polishing machines, etc. and a single phase for the provision of temporary street lights, site offices, watchman’s cabin, and general lighting.
  • The following documents should be submitted to the Electricity Board for getting new connections.
  1. Application on A-1 form
  2. 7/12 Abstract
  3. Copy of power of attorney
  4. Copy of commencement certificate from the Municipal Corporation
  5. Property tax receipt
  6. Copy of sanctioned drawings from the corporation
  • This procedure should be followed by the concerned electrical contractors who will submit all the documents mentioned above with the application form, duly filled, to the Electricity Board.
  • The service connection department and the Assistant Engineer/Sub Engineer will visit the site to study the location for the supply point.
  • As per the Electricity Board rules, the location of the meter should be nearest to the point of supply.

 

10. COMPOUND WALL FENCING SECURITY FENCING
  1. Construction details are explained In.
  2. The compound wall should be constructed right at the start with a view to improving the overall security of the project and other structures like watchman’s cabin, store, site offices, godowns, steelyards, etc.
  3. This will help in presenting the project positively to prospective customers/visitors.
  4. For the construction of the compound wall and the gate. a drawing should be issued by the Architect.
  5. The actual construction of the compound wall begins after the approval of this drawing.
  6. At the same time, if provisions for a compound wall, even for part of the area, e.g. opposite the shopping plaza, then at least a chain link fencing over the M.S. angle should be constructed for security purposes.

 

11. GATE
  1. The main gate and two-wicket gates should be provided.
  2. A single entry point to the project/plot helps avoid theft problems, check the outgoing/ Incoming materials, controls site staff timing restrictions, and visitors/customer entries.
  3. If the main gate is not fixed at least a ‘stop and start pole’ should be used, be operated by the watchman.
  4. Once the compound wall and gate is complete, the plantation of trees along the fencing should be started. So when the project actually commences, trees will have grown, adding to the beauty of the project.

 

12. CHECKING OF THE LAYOUT WITH ACTUAL BOUNDARIES
  1. Before the main building line out begins, the site the engineer must confirm the actual boundaries as per the sanctioned layout plan and check the set back margins simultaneously.
  2. Temporary markings of external buildings corners and other structures like underground water tank, .swimming tank, etc. should be marked with steel rods fixed in. cement projected 15cm above the ground and painted with white oil paint.
  3. Cross-check this marking with set back from the actual plot boundaries.
  4. At this stage, all buildings should be properly shown on the layout with their set back as per rules.
  5. This layout drawing should be approved by the Architect and Architect.
  6. While checking this layout, mark open spaces and road the portion on the ground as per the approved layout drawings to ensure that all temporary structures can be accommodated without causing any hindrances to the future structure.

 

13. TEMPORARY WATER STORAGE TANK

Tanks should be located centrally/at a suitable place nearest to all buildings to minimize the length of the pipe and leakage as well as head losses at the time of curing.

Pipeline networks should not disturb the temporary roads.

TEMPORARY WATER STORAGE TANK
    TEMPORARY WATER STORAGE TANK

 

14. OTHER STRUCTURES
  1. They include steelyards and miscellaneous godowns.
  2. Steelyard doors should be sufficiently wide for sale arrivals/ departures of trucks.
  3. Temporary steelyards should be covered with G.I. sheets supported by vertical bullies 2.5 m height, around the yard so that the entry of unauthorized persons will be restricted.

 

15. CEMENT GODOWNS
  1. Cement godown should be centrally located, near the buildings without obstructing the proposed permanent structure or the vehicular movement around it.
  2. The flooring of the cement godown should be raised to 45 cm above the existing ground level with smooth I.P.S. floor furnishing.
  3. This temporary structure can be made from G.I. sheets.
  4. It should be 100% waterproof with minimum openings and perfect security.
  5. It should have sufficient capacity of storage for a minimum of 400 to 600 bags.

 

16. WATCH-TOWER
  1. A large area can be in the range of vision from the highest point.
  2. Any trespassers can be easily spotted from a higher point.
  3. Larger projects should, therefore, have a centrally located watchtower approximately 15 to 20m above the ground level.
  4. Floodlights fitted on this tower are more advantageous from the security point of view.
watcht tower
  watchtower

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Anand Kamble
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