STEPS INVOLVED IN LINE OUT AND BUILDING SETTING
- Cleaning the site and leveling it with minor cutting filling.
- Demarcation of the plot and marking the actual boundaries with the help of the theodolite detail.
- Proposed layout to be marked in the actual demarcation drawings and check the feasibility of accommodation at the site.
- Contour survey to be prepared.
- Finalization of all levels with reference to a fixed benchmark.
- Checking and approval of all drawings with the concerned authorities.
- Checking of the centerline drawings carefully.
- To start the boundary wall construction.
- To start preliminary line-out of buildings and other structures and check the required dimension and setbacks.
- After confirmation, start a detailed line-out of the project at the site for all the buildings and all other structures.
- Individual building structure line-out.
- Necessary precautions to be taken while doing line-out and building settings.
- All these steps need to be studied carefully, applying engineering knowledge and skills. Information about the use of instruments for a line-out, i.e. theodolite and dumpy level can be referred to in the article.
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LINE OUT OF BUILDING SETTING PROCEDURE – REQUIREMENTS
1. LAYOUT DRAWINGS
2. INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS.
Theodolite, line string, plumb, hammer, pegs, nails, measuring tapes 30 meters (at least 2 Nos.), tube level, mortar pans (ghamela), spade (phavada), pickaxe (tikav), right angle, trowel (thapi), marking stone, bricks, cement, sand (for pillar construction), oil paint, brush, etc.
SITE CLEANING AND LEVELLING
- Study the final levels of the approach road. Before starting the line-out, site cleaning, and fair leveling of the plot should be. completed. This helps in obtaining the correct measurements, without any obstructions.
- To decide the parking and plinth levels of the buildings, after, a detailed contour survey, make reference to the approach road level.
- Check if the ground is leveled or requires any filling cutting, as per the building levels.
- Now, clear the land to a leveled surface. If necessary, use tractors. Cut any plants, bushes, etc. For the cutting of bigger trees, an application should be submitted to the Municipal Corporation.
- The actual cutting should be done as per the procedure of the municipal authorities.
PRELIMINARY LINE OUT OF BUILDING SETTING PROCEDURE
- Decide on a permanent structure fixed benchmark, that was considered during contouring survey work.
- Locate this structure on the plan.
- As per the drawing, measure the various distances from this structure. Now, mark straight lines on the ground parallel to the compound wall or building.
- Fix up any corner of the building. Before fixing the face of the building, the baseline, e.g. the line parallel to the front road should be fixed.
- This line is marked from the center of the road, taking into consideration future road widening. From this baseline, with minimum setbacks from the road as per the layout drawing, a building line is fixed.
- Set up the theodolite on any one corner and by taking perpendicular measurements, finalize all four corners of the building.
- At this stage, check the required setbacks for locating all the buildings, as shown on the plan.
- Check the area of open space and distances between the different buildings.
- If any ambiguity is observed, it should be brought to the notice of the resident Architect. The Architect should approve the preliminary line-out.
- After preliminary line-out, the compound wall can be constructed for security. It will also act as a fixed reference of boundaries, to avoid any encroachments by the adjacent plot owners.
DETAILED LINE OUT OF PROJECT
- Locate point B’ at a distance equal to X, on another end of the plot along the road.
- Check the distances between the road widening line. and set backline. It should be less than X, anywhere. If required, shift the line inwards till the shortest distance is obtained as X.
- Turn the theodolite at 90° to line A-B Mark point B’ on the boundary (QR).
- Check the distances of line AB’ from the left-hand side boundary PQ.
- This distance should not be less than Y.
- If required, shift the line AB’ to A’F, to get the minimum side margin everywhere.
- Now, two lines AlB and Alf are the final boundary lines at a right angle to each other.
- Locate the points C, D, E, F along the line A’F at a distance equal to the widths of the respective building,
- Shift the theodolite to point C, D, E, and F to get CC,, DD,, EE,, FF, etc. at the right angle.
- Measure the required distance as per the layout plan and locate the actual corners of the building at the site.
- Cross-check the distance A,C, C,D,, D,E, etc. and the diagonals of the respective buildings.
- Check the distance ‘Z’ and Z’, to confirm the minimum required side margin.
- Construct pillars @ 2.0 meters away from the building corners from either side. undisturbed reference (Refer to figure No. 19.4). These pillars should be of sizes 30cm and a height of 45cm approx. above G.L. The top of these pillars should be plastered with smooth cement mortar. The surface should be painted after sufficient curing with a white color base and red markings over it (Refer to Figure No.19.3). These pillars are useful during the line-out of each individual building.
- Fix steel bars at the actual corners of the buildings for future reference.
- The Architect should check the line out. Take N.O.C. from Architect for the correctness of the line-out, setbacks, side margins, etc.
- Construction work can start now, for all or some of the buildings, after the N.O.C. from Architect.
- Apply the same procedure for the line-out of other buildings, as per the approved drawings given by the Architect.
- Mark positions on the ground for all other structures, with reference to these building corners.
- Check the dimensions as per the drawings of all structures, e.g. roads, open spaces, swimming pool, garden, watchman’s cabin, etc.
INDIVIDUAL BUILDING LINE OUT
- Study the working drawings and centerline drawings before starting the actual line-out.
- Check all the measurements and distances and tally them with each other.
- Locations & orientations of the columns should be such that all internal dimensions of the rooms, passages, ducts, etc. match the working drawing without any obstruction.
- If any discrepancies are observed, get them rectified right away from the Architect.
- Clear the central portion of the plot, remove the unwanted grass, bushes, etc., and level the plot.
- Take the required side margin and set up the theodolite.
- Mark a parallel line from all the four sides of the building tine @ 1.5 meters (5’0″) away and erect a brick pillar or munlhas on this line.
- Mundthas should be erected by making pits about 60cm. deep and pour concrete in this pita for firm fixity.
- The center-to-center distance between mundhas should not be more than 2.5 m.
- Construct brick pillars, if any, in the center of each column.
- For brick pillars, railing planks are not required. But, in the case of mundhas, fix these planks at a distance of about d.0 meters above G.L.
- This railing should be of good quality wooden planks, of size 15cm x 4 cm (6″ x 1-“). Avoid using bent cracked planks: The railing should be nailed to mundhas in level, using 50mm long wire nails.
- Set up the theodolite on one corner of the building (marked earlier on a pillar) and bisect the building corner marked on the other side of the pillar.
- Move the telescope vertically, bisect the railing plank, and fix nails on both the railings. This will be the face line of building 1.e. 0.0 marking,
- Similarly, set up other faces of the building, which will be 0.0. marking nail for other faces. Repeat the procedure to fix two faces of the building.
- Mark nails on all four corners of the building. Check diagonals using two tapes at a time. Both the diagonal distances should be the same as
- C – VA 2+ B2
- Where C = diagonal
- A = One side of the building
- B= Other perpendicular side of the building.
- If any difference is observed in the diagonals. A slight shifting of the proper nail on the railing is needed. After every shifting of any nail, check all the dimensions, and setbacks. Repeat the procedure to obtain the correct sizes and diagonals.
- After the correct layout of four corners of the building and exact diagonals are obtained, start center marking for every column.
- By using steel tape, measure the distance of each column and fix nails for each center of the columns on one side.
- Repeat the procedure on all four sides and fix the proper nails.
- For markings, use white oil paint on the railing and write all column numbers by red oil paint, for ready identification near respective nails.
- Inform the Architect and get the centerline marking checked. The Architect should check all the nailing measurements and numbering of the same. He should also check the setbacks for the buildings, before giving N.O.C. for the work. This is a final N.O.C, for a line-out.
- After the final N.O.C. from the Architect is obtained, start line-out marking for column pits to be excavated, on the ground.
- A nylon string should be fixed to the nails for particular column numbers on both the axis, the Crossing point of both strings will be the center of that column.
- Put the plumb bob at the center of the column: mark by lime powder as (+) and then the side of excavation for footing should be marked on the ground by lime powder.
- Repeat the procedure to locate the center of the column.
- All mundhas (vertical wooden posts) should be fixed properly in concrete. Seven day curing period should be allowed, before fixing the railing.
- The railing should be straight and of a standard size.
- The joints of the railing should be flushed and properly nailed.
- Mundha top should be kept generally at the same level.
- The railing should be fixed at a fixed level, using a level tube or dumpy level.
- Railing fixing should be done by 50mm nails.
- Nails for the column center should be 40mm only.
- To ensure that the railing does do not obstruct any vehicular traffic, it should not be near a road.
- Stay for the vertical wooden post is necessary, after every fifth post.
- To avoid its bending, the staff labourers should not be allowed to sit on the railing.
- Periodical checking should be done by measuring the distance of each nail from the face marking. Variations, if any, should be rectified immediately.
- The height of the railing should be minimum to reduce the chances of error while plotting the center inside the excavated pits for the column footing.
- All column numbers marked on the railing should be visible.
- Nails should not be disturbed until the completion of the plinth beam work.
- Removal of the railings should be done with the consent of the site engineer.
- If adjoining building work is complete, checking should be done considering expansion joints before starting the new building.
- The previous building level and the column center should be used as a reference.
- In the case of adjoining buildings, the middle railing should be adjusted so that the execution work of the column footings at the location of the connection are not disturbed.
- Any discrepancies errors found at any stage should be immediately brought to the notice of the architect’s higher authorities.
- All work should be certified by the Architects in Pune.
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