The types of building drawings required for the execution of projects are prepared by the Architect. Structural consultant and other consultants.
While a consultant is capable of developing concepts for the project types of building drawings and designs, Architects Consultants with wide field experience are able to give better and detailed drawings.
types of building drawings required details to enable the site engineer to execute his work with speed, accuracy, and quality.
- In case of insufficient details in a drawing, the site engineer/site in charge should get his doubts clarified from the architects in Pune.
- If due to workload, contacting the Architect or Consultant for minor detailing is not possible. the ‘assumption factor’ comes into the picture.
- The assumption factor varies from engineer to engineer and may alter the basic concept of the particular work.
- This in turn may lead to re-doing the work, ultimately causing heavy losses to the company and discouraging exposure to the site engineer.
- Therefore, the engineer should prepare a list of the drawings with details that are required for the execution of the project.
- And he should collect all the detailed types of building drawing the Architect Consultant before the execution of a consultant is from the Architect/Consultant before the execution of consultant is capable of developing any work.
- In this chapter, we will consider the guidelines for minimizing the assumption factor. For this, we will take a closer look at the details required in working drawings, keeping in mind the actual field problems.
- The Architect/Consultant should give formation levels of all the structures when the latest actual demarcation and contour survey drawing is given to the Architect by the company. This should be done with the entire project and the overall proposed development works in mind.
TYPES OF BUILDING DRAWINGS – AND ITS DETAILING
Following is the list of the types of building drawings required for building construction projects.
1. DEMARCATION DRAWINGS
There are two types of demarcation drawings
CITY SURVEY DEMARCATION AND ACTUAL DEMARCATION
- Every site should have a copy of the city survey demarcation drawing.
- It is a reference to preparing actual demarcation drawings.
- Actual demarcation is prepared by a theodolite or plan table survey after verification of boundaries as per the city survey demarcation drawing and existing known boundaries.
- This drawing should include the following information.
- All site boundaries of the land in possession.
- The dotted mesh of boundaries as per the city survey demarcation drawing.
- The shaded area of land showing encroachment, if any.
- Existing water bunds, bore wells, electrical poles, telephone poles, approach roads, temporary roads, hutments, and existing trees with details. (g type, height, diameter, etc.)
- High-tension electrical lines.
- Existing walls.
- Nearby drainage line and water line.
- Nearby nalla/canal.
- Any disputed boundaries.
- Any other existing structures.
To begin with, the temporary benchmark (T.B.M.) of R.L. Say 100.000 should be fixed at a convenient place at the site. This T.B.M. is then shifted to other convenient places to facilitate leveling work.
- This drawing should have the following information :
- Levels of total plot in fixed grid interval.
- Details of levels for sudden considerable up-downs in between fixed grids.
- Levels of roads, culverts, nalla bed levels, and high flood levels.
- Nearest drainage line with chamber invert level.
- Top of well, depth of well with water level marking.
Note: Actual demarcation and contour survey drawings are generally prepared by the builder owner with the help of a survey agency. The types of building drawings should be submitted with the Architect well in advance.
- Show the position of all buildings.
- Position of the compound wall.
- Temporary steel yard/general material yard/store room Cemebgodown/site office/watchman cabin/labour huts/ material stacking place etc.
- Temporary electrical lines/ points for proper illumination of the area with minimum street lights/tube lights.
Note: The above drawing should be given to the Architect after discussion with the project in charge.
- Show project layout with building location.
- Show the location of the temporary water storage tank.
- Show proper water supply network from storage place to different buildings.
- Show the location for the temporary electric meter and electric supply details.
- Show temporary internal road details connected to the approach road.
Note: The above drawings should be given by the Architect consultant in consultation with the project in charge.
The Architect Consultant should submit the following drawings at various stages of the development of the project, along with other construction work. Details are as follows
- Top RL. (reduced level)
- Specifications and working drawings
FRONT GATE (Main Gate)
- Working details
- R.C.C. details
- Opening details
- Electrical arrangements
- Space for writing project name and details of letters to be used
- Detailed working drawings
- Inlet/outlet/overflow/suction pit details and levels
- Pump position/manhole position/ladder position
- F.F.L from ground
- RL’s with respect to T.B.M.
- Layout positions
- Detailed working drawings
- Section through soak pit and filter chamber
- All compartment bed levels and top slab levels
6. ARCHITECTURAL WORKING DRAWINGS
The Architect/Consultant should give all the necessary types of building drawings as listed below, with details of each building component.
Should show total layout details as per Municipal rules and regulations. It should also have all the necessary area statements of the project. This is required for getting the plan sanctioned.
These types of building drawings are required at the site for the execution of actual building works. Various detailed working drawings are
required as mentioned below-
PROJECT LAYOUT DRAWINGS CHECKLIST
- North Direction.
- Side marginal spaces and critical setbacks.
- Show the arrangement of buildings with consideration of expansion joint thickness as required.
- Mark the distances between the buildings with due consideration for expansion North Direction. joints.
- Specify the outer measurements of the buildings.
- Give distances of reference points for buildings from existing permanent structures, pole/road, etc. Give details of steps, ramps, asphalted areas, parking plans with clear dimensions, and levels.
- Internal road widths and details.
- Underground water tank position and sizes.
- Septic tank position/sizes.
- The garden location along with details of a plantation.
- Open space details, as per the requirements of local authorities.
- All internal development details.
- Society office.
- Pump room.
- Compound wall position.
- Front gate details.
- Transformer position.
- Playground layout along with the position of playground equipment,
- Watchman’s room.
- Proposed existing bore-well.
- Existing well position with size.
BUILDING WISE WORKING DRAWINGS
CENTER LINE DRAWING
- Approved center line plan (with due consideration of expansion Joint thickness)
- Show the reference axes of 00.00.
- Show the footings with scale to avoid overlapping.
- Specify the size and orientation of the column at the footing level.
- Specify the fixed face and reduction arrow of the columns.
- Basic center line drawings must be below the plinth.
- Consider internal walls 15 cm (6″) thick Instead of 0 cm (4″) thick in case of half brick wall.
- Mention F.F.L. (floor finish level) of parking with reference to the road.
- Give flooring details.
- Show exact parking layouts.
- Show plaster finish treatment to columns and ceilings.
- Give entrance details from the road to the plinth.
- Show the location of the washing place/common toilet (if any).
- Details of meter box along with position and size.
- Section through parking area showing slopes.
- Parking allotment for cars and scooters Details of color scheme for ceilings and columns.
- Location of letterboxes and the location of the flat holders’ name board.
- Details of masonry work in parking to carry vertical plumbing stacks.
- Details of electrical points.
- Give the room dimensions along with wall thickness.
- Show the positions of doors and windows with a width of the opening, distance from the sidewall, opening direction, and sill level of a window from F.F.L.
- Specify the types of tiles/flooring to be used.
- Show and mention the lines of floor finish changes and drop in the tile.
- If open ducts exist, details of closure should be given.
- Mention the number of steps in flight, details of tread, and riser with finishing.
- In the case of the basement, top-level, and shahabad box type waterproofing to be given along with details of the gutter and collecting sump.
- Give the details of shopping steps with finishes and due consideration for ventilation of the basement (if any).
- Loft position in all flats along with levels.
- Give the size d tread, landing top levels.
- of all landings, Wt pt with sidewalls, etc.
- Position of kitchen otta with sink and levels of kitchen otta sink.
- Give the finished floor top levels of each floor with reference to 0.
- In the case of round balconies or arches mention the radius of the arch
- Show the details of the flower bed with dimensions.
- Mark all sunk portions in the working drawing as a shaded area.
- ventilators and any other openings.
- Indicate proper differentiation for different types of masonry along with the thickness.
- Show the Internal layout of WC/ bath and toilet.
- Show details of level difference from room to balcony and room to W.C. bath.
- Show balcony water spouts, W.C./bath escape spouts location, and levels.
- Show slopes of the terrace with the location of the rainwater outlet.
- Give details of waterproofing work over the terrace and top finishing details.
- Lift machine room/staircase cap details along with the location of the doors.
- Give the levels of the lift machine room and overhead water tank.
- Details of size, the capacity. the outlet of the overhead water tank.
- Details of waterproofing work for an overhead water tank.
- Details of waterproofing work for staircase cap and lift machine room top.
- Details of the expansion joint treatment at terrace levels.
- Details of light points at terrace levels.
- Details of lift machine room along with the position of trap door (if any), ladder fr.r machine room, doors, and windows.
- Details of lights for the terrace.
- Details of the location of the common TV antenna.
- Details of finishing work for the terrace Pardi/masonry of parapet wall etc.
- Details of the ladder for climbing to the top of the overhead water tank.
- Mention the finished floor levels of all the stories.
- Mention the height of the sills, doors, windows, openings, lofts, and rolling shutters clearly from the finished floor levels.
- Show and give details of elevations, cornices, drop Pardi and projection of slab at terrace level with reference to the building line.
- Specify the thickness of the waterproofing treatment for toilet terraces.
- Mention the number of steps in each flight, details of treads, and risers with finishes.
- Give the details of the staircase railing, water tank, and parapet walls along with the height.
- Show the F.F.L. of all the floors and landings.
- Give R.L.’s of landings and waterproofing treatment for the staircase cap.
- Show the position of the railing and its supports. Give the details of openings from the staircase.
- window opening in the staircase and lift machine room.
- Show the position, type, and sill level of the R.C.C. grills to be provided in the staircase.
- Show the details of elevational features with dimensions.
- In the case of arches give the radius of the arches.
- Show and give the details of grooves, cornices, and flower beds with respect to ±0’0″.
- Give R.L.’s of floors and floor-to-floor heights of the building.
- Show the height of pardies, drops, inverted pardi, etc.
- Show plaster Patta width floor-wise.
- Plastering detail drawings for elevation.
- Front elevational treatment complete details.
- Door frame shutter drawing, schedule with fixtures, and fastenings with their heights.
- Windows drawings with their schedule for fixtures and fastening.
- Rolling shutter details.
- Show the position of windows on the wall inside and outside with respect to the room.
- Give the details of aluminum frames, tracks, aluminum shutters, etc.
- Show the vertical sections of the aluminum window with the following details.
- Sections of the aluminum door frame and shutters.
- Details of all sill slopes
- Thickness of glass
- Opening of A.C. Units (if aný)
- The total height of aluminum windows
- The height of the window sill is to be clearly specified in the elevation.
- Give the detailed positions of pivots, c/c distance of pivots (both vertical and horizontal).
- Give the details of holes for accumulated rainwater to flow out of tracks.
- Give details of locking arrangements.
- Give details of grills (if any).
Give the elevations of all types of doors, with a specification of the frame, shutter, arch, cover moulding, etc.
Give the sectional plan of door frames, with details like the size of the frame, position, size of grooves, details of shutters, vertical section of the door frame, plaster grooves, etc.
STANDARD HEIGHTS OF FITTINGS FOR THE MAIN DOOR
HEIGHT FROM F.F.L
POSITION OF FITTING
MAIN DOOR INSIDE
TOWER BOLT 15CM (6″)
TOP FLUSH TO TOP OF SHUTTER
5CM (2″) FROME OPENING EDGE OF SHUTTER
145 CM (58″)
5CM (2″) FROME OPENING EDGE OF SHUTTER
145 CM (58″)
AT CENTRE OF SHUTTER
HANDLE D TYPE BOTTOM
120 CM (48″)
6.5 CM (2 1/2″) FROM OPENING EDGE OF THE SHUTTER
100 CM (40″)
OPENING EDGE OF SHUTTER
85 CM (34″)
AT THE OPENING OF EDGE
7.5 CM (3″)
7.5 CM (3″) FROM OPENING EDGE SHUTTER
UNIT NUMBER PLATE
175 CM (70″)
CENTER OF SHUTTER
CENTER OF SHUTTER
DECORATIVE HANDLE BOTTUM
110 CM (44″)
7.5 CM (3″) FROME OPENING SIDE EDGE OF SHUTTER
AT THE OPENING EDGE
AS PER REQUIRMENT
AT THE OPENING EDGE
Give the table of fixtures and fastenings.
The position of fixtures and fastening should be shown as per table No. 7.1 to 7.4 for door frame height (2100 mm).
All the heights of fittings should be shown on the drawings to maintain similarity throughout the work. The recommended height
of fitting may be as per table Nos. 7.1 to 7.4.
- Show all details of kitchen otta finishes.
- Show top levels of otta, sunk from F.F.L. of a kitchen.
- Show details of glazed tiles dado work for kitchen otta.
- Show sink waste outlet detail.
- Show all arrangements for kitchen otta including the type of material for vertical, horizontal, and shelf members, etc.
- Layout showing slopes.
- All plumbing points details.
- Specification/fittings requirement.
- Levels/heights of fittings.
- Details of flooring work with the slope.
- Detail of glazed tile dado works to sidewall.
- Wash Hand Basin fixing details.
- The internal layout of one typical flat with the required color combination.
- Colour and painting details for staircase and landing.
- Painting details for parking and entrance.
- Painting details for the external surface of the building including the terrace and overhead water tank.
- Painting details for the project.
- Painting material specification.
7. TYPES OF R.C.C. DRAWINGS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
The structural consultant for the project will give the following R.C.C. drawings details after studying all architectural drawings and necessary consultations with the Architect and project in charge.
- Footings, columns drawings, index, and schedule.
- Plinth beam/tie beam drawings.
- Parking slab drawing.
- Typical floor slab drawings.
- Mezzanine slab if any/ground floor slab details.
- Terrace level slab details.
- Staircase cap, O.H.W.T., machine room slab detail.
- Drawings of U.G.W.T./septic tank/lift shaft /watchman cabin/pump room/L.T. room.
- Drawings of lofts, lintels, and chajjas.
- Compound wall
- Retaining wall
- Pile foundation
- Front gate
- Garden wall and arch
- Swimming pool
- Changing room
- Filtration plant
- Stormwater drain including covers etc.
- Basement raft and side parties.
- Lift shafts, bottom slab, and side pardi details.
- Machine foundations.
- M.S. staircase and ladders.
- Slab on wells, nalla, and culverts.
- Decorative towers, floating columns. decorative columns for lighting etc.
- Decorative R.C.C. grills.
- Lightweight masonry details.
- Critical waterproofing designs of structures.
- Any other specific extra amenity details, Expansion joints, etc.
The plumbing work consultant will discuss all specifications of the project with the Architect and the project in charge. Based on his study and the discussions, he will prepare the total plumbing details for the complete project. The drawings submitted by him will be as follow
- Stormwater drawing
- Drainage drawing
- Water supply lines
- Standard recommended heights of plumbing fittings
- Septic tank
- Terrace-level distribution for pipeline
- Internal plumbing work details
- Any specific details are required.
- Pump details
- Pump room arrangement details.
- Fire fighting systems details.
- Any other structure required to carry
- plumbing systems.
The Architect will submit detailed electrical drawings after discussions and approvals from the electrical consultant and project in charge.
The details are as given below
- Electrical layout in the premises with location, levels of points, and switches.
- Position of distríbution box feeder pillars.
- Road lights position.
- Cable laying position below the road.
- Transformer details and locations.
- Light points in the entire area.
- Complete cable layout.
- Meter board position of each building Earthing position of each building.
- Busbar and specification.
- Cable sizes.
- Detailed positions of the meter box, main cable layout, and external lighting schemes.
- Mention the three-phase connection on the distribution box with some indications in three colors of wires.
- Common TV/VCR room/ position and the separate mark of the different bases.
- Internal room-wise electrical point details for flats with levels and locations.
10. TV TELEPHONE DRAWINGS
- Location of TV/VCR room.
- Cable laying details up to each building.
STANDARD HEIGHTS OF PLUMBING FITTINGS
|SR NO||PARTICULARS|| RECOMMENDED HIGHTS FROM F.F.L
(FINISH FLOOR LEVEL)
|1||WALL LIGHT POINT||230 CM (90″)|
|2||CELLING POINT|| CENTER OF THE ROOM AS PER
|3|| BOTTOM FO SWITCHBOARD WITH
LIGHT FAN SWITCHES REGULATOR
5AMP SOCKET AND 15 AMP SOCKET
|135 CM (54″)|
|4|| PLUG POINT, TV, AND TELEPHONIC
POINT IN LIVING ROOM
|45 CM (18″)|
- Distribution boxes for telephone connections in front of each building.
- Vertical conduit details for TV/Telephone wiring for each building.
- Location of satellite dish antenna for the project. (if any)
CHECKLIST OF BUILDING DRAWINGS
- Often, the site engineer requires types of building drawings for a particular work stage from the Architect.
- The Architect/Consultant may delay the preparation of drawings, in turn delaying the work due to the non-availability of the drawings.
- Once on-site, the drawings are not studied/ checked in detail due to the workload. The execution of the work then begins as per the available drawings.
- As a result, printing mistakes or those caused by sheer oversight may result in the demolition and rectification of the works at a later stage.
- Therefore the pre-checking and detailed study of the drawing is a must.
- To avoid any problems and rectifications the Engineer should ask for the types of building drawings required. from the Architect/Consultant well in advance.
- An Architect has his own style of detailing the drawings. But the engineers, expectations of detailing might be universal in a particular organization.
- This can be done, provided the construction company gives standard guidelines regarding the details required in each drawing.
- While preparing the first drawing, the Architect will put up the details as per the given specifications to avoid rejections/repeated mistakes in the types of building drawings.
- Practical experience shows that many civil engineers face difficulties during the execution of the work at the site, due to a lack of sufficient detailing in drawings.
- These factors emphasize the need for detailed working drawings to ensure the smooth and efficient completion of the project.
2. POINTS TO BE OBSERVED WHILE CHECKLIST OF BUILDING DRAWINGS
BUILDING LAYOUT DRAWINGS (PROJECT)
- Nameplate as per the specified form.
- Project name, drawing title, subtitle, and scale.
- North direction.
- Boundaries as per the latest site demarcation (theodolite survey) given to the Architect by site engineers.
- Existing tree locations.
- Existing well, bore-well, electric pole. telephone pole, overhead existing telephone, and electrical lines, overhead high tension line, hutments, and all other structures marked on the theodolite survey drawing.
- Building setbacks, other buildings or structures obstructing structures, sufficient set back for septic tanks, etc.
- Road, septic tank, U.G.W.T., bore well, pump room, garden, transformer room, society office location, size, details, etc.
- Check the sizes of a septic tank and U.G.W.T. in consultation with the plumbing of the existing consultant.
- R.L.’s of road top, flat plinth, parking, garden top, steps details, shop R.L., septic tank top, L.T. room plinth, society office, top of
- U.G.W.T., main entrance road, T.B.M. location, etc.
- Location of compound wall, front gates, size, and type of compound wall.
- Expansion joint provided at required distance and continuity.
- Layout for temporary structures/sheds is also to be checked.
- Any shed like a site office, steelyard, material yard, or watchman’s cabin should be obstructed for forthcoming buildings.
- All these structures to be centrally located as far as possible. Watchman’s cabin should be near the main gate.
- Sizes of all the above structures in the project.
- These structures should be in open space or as directed by the Architect, without disturbing up to a minimum of two years.
- Sizes of buildings in layout to be as per working drawings or approved drawings.
- Structure height in respect of G+2 and parking +3 etc. to be mentioned.
Following points to be observed while checking working drawings
- North direction.
- Nameplate as per the specified form.
- Project name, drawing title, subtitle, and scale.
- Whether sizes are as per printed brochure.
- Flat numbers as per printed brochure.
- Brick/block walling convention.
- Chalja at the terrace level is shown in dotted on all plans.
- Levels with respect to T.B.M. for all plans on a plinth, parking, landing, mid-landing, etc.
- The direction of a door opening.
- The direction of the bath W.C. door opening.
- Duct dimensions and open area dimensions.
- Column reduction arrows.
- Centreline checking
- Size of a column at footing level
- All open duct, space, and staircase
- detail direction
- All room sizes as per the brochure
- Wall thickness
- Column reduction arrows
- Dotted lines for chajja, rolling shutter Pardi, drop pardi, etc.
- Kitchen otta position with sink sizes.
- Loft position and width.
- Balcony, W.C., and Bath drop.
- All windows, door frame openings, rolling shutter, R.C.C. grill sizes, schedule, exhaust fan opening, and balcony grill openings.
- Specification details in brief.
- W.C./bath/toilet/terrace sunk to be shown shaded.
- Terrace drains, slopping patterns, and rainwater pipe opening locations.
- O.H.W.T. position/lift room position.
- Lift shaft sizes.
- Staircase pardi thickness.
- Riser/tread of staircase.
- Parking drawing (physical movement of vehicles should be considered).
- Column position sizes as per R.C.C. drawing.
- Washing place location in parking. Entrance details for plinth-side flats.
- Meter cabinet location.
- Levels of all shops plinth, parking at every floor, and mid-landing.
- Chajja, steps, plaza etc.
- Road to parking entry details.
- Floor to floor heights.
- Sunk details.
- Parapet height and finishes.
- Details of staircase cap and machine room.
- Plaster details of all corners window sills, chajjas, grooves plaster pasta, etc.
- Floor to floor height level.
The following points should be observed while checking the R.C.C. drawing
- To be read as per working drawings. Check the steel at cantilevers etc.
- Sunk slab/W.C. toilet bath.
- Headroom at a specific level (beam depth and change in beam depth).
- Dowel for adjacent structure.
- Details of the column below the overhead water tank.
- Check elevational features.
- Inverted beam for W.C./bath etc.
- Loft details to be taken along with the beam.
- Floating columns details.
- Terrace level chajja steel details.
- Reinforcement at critical points.
TYPICAL NAMEPLATE FOR DRAWING
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